Biol172_chapter40_2009

Biol172_chapter40_20 - Chapter 40 Animal Structure and Function The comparative study of animals reveals that form and function are closely

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1 Chapter 40 Animal Structure and Function The comparative study of animals reveals that form and function are closely correlated Physical laws and the environment constrain animal size and shape Physical laws govern the exchange of energy and materials of organisms with the environment In particular, the SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS explains the flow of heat and movements of elementary particles • Place certain limits on: • the range of animal forms • Size of cells • Shape of animals • Size of animals The term morphology refers to the outward appearance (shape, structure, color, pattern) of an organism and its component parts Eosinophil Smooth muscle cells Average size of a cell: 50-100 μ m Epithelial cells Macrophage Erythrocyte B-cell Physical laws and the environment constrain animal size and shape Evolutionary convergence - Reflects different species’ independent adaptation to a similar environmental (a) Tuna (b) Shark challenge (e) Seal (d) Dolphin (c) Penguin
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2 Gravity Pump Suction Pump Limiting factors for body size Weight carrying capacity of the supporting biological structures Bones Cellulose Transport of soluble materials through a vascular system Circulatory or cardiovascular system in animals vascular system (Xylem, Phloem) in plants Area = 6 l 2 Volume = l 3 Surface/Volume Ratio Surface/Volume Ratio Small animal Large animal
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3 Low metabolic rate High metabolic rate Etruscan Shrew All living cells must be bathed in aqueous medium • Small organisms such as an amoeba or Hydra have all cells bathed in wate Body size, cell size and shape affect interactions with the environment have all cells bathed in water • Larger have developed extensive circulatory and respiratory systems for exchange of materials with environment Organisms exchange material and energy with the environment • Organic substances • Gas (oxygen, carbondioxide) • Water • Ions, salts Diffusion 2.5 mm Organisms exchange material and energy with the environment Diffusion
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This note was uploaded on 08/30/2010 for the course BIO 320 taught by Professor Wu during the Spring '10 term at USC.

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Biol172_chapter40_20 - Chapter 40 Animal Structure and Function The comparative study of animals reveals that form and function are closely

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