Biol172_Chapter43_handout

Biol172_Chapter43_handout - Immunity and the Immune System...

Info iconThis preview shows pages 1–4. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
1 Immunity and the Immune System The immune system defends the body against attack by pathogens : Bacteria Staphylococci, Streptococci Mycobacteria Vibrio , Yserbia, Salmonella Clostridium Syphilis Immunity and the Immune System The immune system defends the body against attack by pathogens Viruses HIV Hepatitis B Influenza Ebola Polio Immunity and the Immune System The immune system defends the body against attack by pathogens Single-celled parasites Malaria Toxoplasmosis Fungi Blamed for the world-wide decline of amphibians Rank Cause of death Deaths 2002 Percentage of all deaths N/A All infectious diseases 14.7 million 25.9% 1 Lower respiratory infections (Pneumonia) 3.9 million 6.9% 2 HIV/AIDS 2.8 million 4.9% 3 Diarrheal diseases (Typhoid, Cholera) 1.8 million 3.2% 4 Tuberculosis (TB) 1.6 million 2.7% 5 Malaria 1.3 million 2.2% 6 Measles 0.6 million 1.1% 7 Pertussis 0.29 million 0.5% 8 Tetanus 0.21 million 0.4% 9 Meningitis 0.17 million 0.3% 10 Syphilis 0.16 million 0.3% 11 Hepatitis B 0.10 million 0.2% Success Stories The knowledge of pathogen transmission and the immune system has conquered the (historically) worst diseases of humans Smallpox • Variola virus • Extremely infectious • 30% morbidity • 300–500 million deaths during the 20 th century • Active immunization with vaccinia virus has eradicated the disease • In1980, the WHO certified that the world was free of naturally occurring smallpox
Background image of page 1

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
2 Plague = “The Black Death” •14 th century pandemic reduced the world human population by 30-50% • Knowledge of transmission by fleas and rats as vectors led to sanitation infrastructure • Sewer systems • Clean water supply • Can be cured with antibiotics Inflammation A natural reaction of the immune system to an infection Invasion of tissue by parasites, bacteria, fungi, viruses viruses Sometimes occurs in the absence of a pathogen Can cause pain and tissue destruction Linked to cancer Autoimmune diseases Rheumatoid arthritis Myastenia gravis Immunodeficiencies AIDS “bubble boy syndrome” Transplantation biology Organ rejection Transfusion Hemolytic disease of newborns
Background image of page 2
3 Reconnaissance, Recognition, and Response Two major kinds of defenses have evolved that counter these threats Innate immunity acquired immunity Organs of the Immune System Thymus gland Bone marrow Spleen Lymph nodes, lymphatic system Innate immunity Is present before any exposure to pathogens and is effective from the time of birth Involves nonspecific responses to pathogens Figure 43.1 3 μ m Acquired immunity, also called adaptive immunity Develops only after exposure to inducing agents such as microbes, toxins, or other foreign substances Involves a very specific response to pathogens Develops a ”memory” Intact skin and mucous membranes Form physical barriers that bar the entry of
Background image of page 3

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Image of page 4
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

This note was uploaded on 08/30/2010 for the course BIO 320 taught by Professor Wu during the Spring '10 term at USC.

Page1 / 9

Biol172_Chapter43_handout - Immunity and the Immune System...

This preview shows document pages 1 - 4. Sign up to view the full document.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Ask a homework question - tutors are online