Biol172_Chapter45_handout

Biol172_Chapter45_handout - Hormones impact many biological...

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1 Hormones impact many biological functions Growth and Metabolism “anabolic steroids” promote anabolism Insulin and glucagon promote catabolic functions Molting and metamorphosis Behavior Reproduction, development, maturation Hormones and their receptors are prime targets for pharmacological intervention and manipulation Treatments based on artificial hormones Diabetes Contraception Growth hormone Anabolica Pharmacological blockers Cancer treatments w. antagonists of growth factors Hormones are the Body’s Long- Distance Regulators Hormones are chemical signals that are secreted into the circulatory system and communicate regulatory messages within the body Hormones may reach all parts of the body But only certain types of cells, target cells, are equipped to respond The effects of hormones are very specific Hormones are the Body’s Long- Distance Regulators Hormones have many diverse and sometimes dramatic biological effects Developmental progression is often timed or regulated by hormones Hormones regulate growth Hormones are involved in regulating homeostasis Insect metamorphosis is regulated by hormones Ecdyson is widely used by insects and crustaceans as a molting hormone
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2 Hormones can have a profound effect on aspects of behavior Reproduction Fleeing Feeding Fighting The endocrine system and the nervous system act individually and together in regulating an animal’s physiology Animals have two systems of internal communication and regulation Nervous System Conveys high-speed electrical signals along specialized cells called neurons Endocrine system Secretes hormones that coordinate slower but longer-acting responses to stimuli
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3 Overlap Between Endocrine and Nervous Regulation The endocrine and nervous systems Often function together in maintaining homeostasis, development, and reproduction Specialized nerve cells known as neurosecretory cells release neurohormones into the blood Both endocrine hormones and neurohormones function as long-distance regulators of many physiological processes Control Pathways and Feedback Loops There are three types of hormonal control pathways Endocrine pathway Neurohormone pathway Neuroendocrine pathway Pathway Example Stimulus Low blood glucose Receptor protein Pancreas secretes glucagon ( ) Endocrine cel Blood vessel Liver Target ef ectors Pathway Example Stimulus Suckling Sensory neuron Hypothalamus/ posterior pituitary Neurosecretory cel Blood vessel Posterior pituitary secretes oxytocin ( ) Pathway Example Stimulus Hypothalamic neurohormone released in response to neural and hormonal signals Sensory neuron Hypothalamus secretes prolactin- releasing hormone ( ) Neurosecretory cel Blood vessel Hypothalamus Response Target ef ectors Smooth muscle in breast Response Milk release Anterior pituitary secretes prolactin ( ) Endocrine cel Blood vessel Target ef ectors
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This note was uploaded on 08/30/2010 for the course BIO 320 taught by Professor Wu during the Spring '10 term at USC.

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Biol172_Chapter45_handout - Hormones impact many biological...

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