Study Guide #2 - WEATHER AND ATMOSPHERE STUDY...

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WEATHER AND ATMOSPHERE STUDY GUIDE *Remember that the atmosphere is heated from the bottom and the oceans from the top General circulation of the atmosphere and the surface circulation of the oceans The Northern Hemisphere’s general circulation goes clockwise and the Southern Hemisphere goes counter-clockwise. The surface circulation of the oceans move in large circles within a given space Ocean currents – Where are they formed, importance of, eastern and western boundary currents – know where the Florida, Gulf Stream, California, North Atlantic Drift, Canary, Peru/Humboldt currents are. Ocean currents are formed - through two forces: The Primary Forces which include solar heating, winds, gravity, and the coriolis and the Secondary Forces which are the Surface Circulation They are important because – they determine the climates of the continents especially those regions bordering the ocean (ex: Gulf Stream) Eastern Boundary Current – it is a wide, shallow, slow flowing ocean current which are found on the Eastern side of ocean basins it then transports cool temperature, high latitude water to low latitude waters Western Boundary Current – it is a warm, deep, narrow, and flowing current that occurs on the west side of an ocean basin – they are important for climate control by bringing warm water frfrom the equator northward Florida – it flows generally from the Gulf of Mexico to the Atlantic Ocean – the current results from the movement of water pushed from the Atlantic into the Caribbean Sea by rotation of the Earth Gulf Stream – it travels north until the Westerlies turn it to the east and it becomes the North Atlantic Drift California – is a Pacific Ocean current that moves south along the western coast of North America beginning off southern British Columbia and ending off southern Baja California and it is a part of the North Pacific Gyre North Atlantic Drift – when it hits Europe, Coriolis again turns the current to the right or south and the current is now called the Canary Current Canary – the current flows south until it hits the northeast Trades, which then cause it to flow west and we have come full circle Peru/Humboldt – it is a cold, low salinity ocean current that extends along the West Coast of South America from Nothern Peru to the southern tip of Chile – the current flows in the direction of the equator Gyres – how they are formed, which way they flow and why Gyres – is a large, circular oceanic circulation pattern Formed Flow – the flow of gyres depends on their position to the equator Geostrophic currents and how they are formed It is formed from the balance between gravitational forces and the Coriolis effect which is controlled by water density Kinetic energy – equation for this and how it applies to waves and the Ekman
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KE = ½ m V^2 Velocity squared and mass is significant when talking about water instead of the atmosphere Spiral/transport – and of course know the Ekman Spiral and transport.
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