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4-CarbonCompounds-Fall-2005

4-CarbonCompounds-Fall-2005 - Intro Biol Course Guide...

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Intro. Biol. Course Guide Sathasivan, 2005 Chap. 4. Carbon Compounds 1 4. CARBON COMPOUNDS Outline I. Carbon compounds II. Isomers and III. Functional Groups I. Carbon Compounds, Isomers and Functional Groups Next to water, organic molecules (carbon based) are the major components in living systems. Carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen and oxygen, phosphorus and sulfur are the major elements in living organisms and are present in similar percentages in the living organisms. All the biological molecules are organic compounds of vast diversity. Simple organic compounds are hydrocarbons such as methane (CH 4 ) and ethane (CH 3 -CH 3 ) which may contain few carbons. Complex organic molecules include large molecules (macromolecules such as proteins, polysaccharides, DNA and RNA) which may have millions of carbons connected together. Organic compounds may be linear (aliphatic, e.g., glycerol), branched (isoleucine) or circular (aromatic, e.g., phenol and cholesterol), saturated (no double bonds between carbons, e.g., palmitic acid) or unsaturated (one or more double bonds between carbons, e.g., oleic acid). Organic molecules are represented by molecular formula (e.g., CH 4 ) and structural formula. Sometimes, chemical structures are abbreviated with just lines. For example, cyclohexane (C 6 H 12 ) can be represented by a hexagon. Or a CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 3 can be represented by a wiggly line.
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