BIO%20311c%20Ch2.Small%20Molecules-Handout - Chapter 2....

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Chapter 2. Small Molecules I Basic Terms and Concepts z Isotopes and their uses z Valence and electrons z Octet rule, electronegativity II Chemical bonds and interactions z Covalent bonds z Ionic bonds z Hydrogen bonds z Van der Waals interactions z Hydrophilic/phobic interactions III Water and Life z Properties of water z Solute Concentration z pH K. Sathasivan I Basic Terms and Concepts { Matter { Element { Atom { Molecule { Compound { Electron, proton and neutron { Isotope { Electronegativity { Valence Helium Atom { 2 electrons { 2 protons { 2 neutrons { Atomic mass = 4 { Atomic weight = 4.0026 { Inert and stable Atomic model Periodic Table of Elements Proportions of Elements Fig. 2-2, p. 23 orbitals { Orbital: region where electron is found at least 90 percent of the time. { Orbitals have characteristic shapes and orientations, and can be occupied by two electrons. { Orbitals are filled in a specific sequence.
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Electron Orbitals Fig. 2-6, p. 27 Isotopes Particles 12 C 13 C Stable 14 C Radio- active Electrons 6 6 6 Protons 6 6 6 Neutrons 6 7 8 Isotopes have same number of protons and different number of neutrons Valence electrons and Octet rule { Valence electrons are in the outermost orbit and they determine the reactivity of an atom and how many bonds an atom can make ( valence ). E.g. Oxygen = 2, Nitrogen = 3 and carbon = 4. { Octet rule : An atom needs 2 electrons in the first orbit and 8 electrons in the second or higher orbits to complete the orbits. If complete, the atom is inert and stable. If not, they tend to share electrons with other atoms.
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This note was uploaded on 08/31/2010 for the course BIO 49810 taught by Professor Satasivan during the Spring '10 term at University of Texas at Austin.

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BIO%20311c%20Ch2.Small%20Molecules-Handout - Chapter 2....

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