BIO%20311c%20Ch%2016-Viruses-Bacteria-GeneRegulation-Handout

BIO%20311c%20Ch%2016-Viruses-Bacteria-GeneRegulation-Handout...

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1 16. Genetics of Viruses and Bacteria and Regulation of Gene Expression Structure and Replication of Viruses Bacterial Genome and Gene Transfer Structure and Regulation of Gene Expression in Prokaryotes and in Eukaryotes K. SATHASIVAN Viral structure Figure 13.1 Model Organisms Figure 13.2 Virions Come in Various Shapes Table 13.1 Relative Sizes of Microorganisms Figure 13.3 The Lytic and Lysogenic Cycles of Bacteriophage
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2 Figure 13.4 The Lytic Cycle: A Strategy for Viral Reproduction Plant Viruses Transmission: Vertical and Horizontal Viral infection of plants Figure 13.7 Wheat Streak Mosaic Virus Classes of Animal Viruses, Grouped by Type of Nucleic Acid Figure 13.5 The Reproductive Cycle of the Influenza Virus
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3 Figure 13.6 The Reproductive Cycle of HIV HIV infection Adenovirus Measles Smallpox Treatments and Vaccines 1. Vaccines: Effective against slow-evolving viruses like small pox, polio, rubella, measles and mumps. Not effective for fast evolving viruses. 2. Antiviral drugs: Some examples of drugs that have been effective for some viral replication mechanism are given below. - Acyclovir used to treat herpes infection - inhibits DNA synthesis. - Amantadine used to treat influenza type-A -inhibits uncoating of protein. - AZT (Zidovudine) used to inhibit HIV replication - Serine protease inhibitors E.g. Saquinavir Potential future treatments: new vaccines, RNA interference
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4 BACTERIAL GENOME & GENETICS Bacterial chromosome and plasmids Genetic changes in bacteria Gene organization and regulation Plasmids Extra chromosomal, small and circular DNA R- Plasmid Antibiotic resistance F-Plasmid Fertility pilus for conjugation C-Factors Genes for toxic proteins Gene Transfer in Bacteria Transformation: uptake of DNA from surroundings Transduction: Phage mediated DNA transfer Conjugation: Bacterial mating between F+ and F- strains Transposition: Genes moving from plasmid to chromosome or vice versa Figure 13.10 Lederberg and Tatum’s Experiment Figure 13.11 Bacterial Conjugation Figure 13.12 Recombination Following Conjugation
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5 Figure 13.13 Transformation and Transduction (A) Figure 13.14 Gene Transfer by Plasmids Figure 13.15 Transposable Elements and Transposons Figure 13.17 Two Ways to Regulate a Metabolic Pathway lacA DNA RNA lacI a. Lactose absent from medium Promoter Operator Transcription blocked When lactose is absent from the medium, the active Lac lac operon lacZ lacY Fig. 16-3a, p. 332 mRNA Lac repressor
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This note was uploaded on 08/31/2010 for the course BIO 49810 taught by Professor Satasivan during the Spring '10 term at University of Texas at Austin.

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BIO%20311c%20Ch%2016-Viruses-Bacteria-GeneRegulation-Handout...

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