AMERICAN PAGEANT - CHAPTER 2 - Chapter Two: The Planting of...

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Chapter Two: The Planting of English America (1500 - 1733) England's Imperial Stirrings Beginning of 17 th Century: Native Americans had been largely wiped out. Thousands of slaves toiled on Caribbean and Brazilian plantations. From Florida and New Mexico southward, most of South America belonged to Spain. North America remained largely unexplored and unclaimed. Three distant, primitive outposts: o French, Quebec, 1608 o Spanish, Santa Fe, 1610 o English, Jamestown, 1607 England had made feeble attempts at overseas empire, and those were largely crippled by King Henry VIII's separation with the Catholic Church - the Protestant Reformation – and the religious conflict that continued for decades. However, after the Protestant Elizabeth took the throne in 1558, Protestantism became dominant and English wanted to compete with Catholic Spain. Catholic Ireland became a source of conflict as they appealed to Spain for help, but the uprising was crushed with terrible ferocity by Elizabeth. Elizabeth Energizes England English buccaneers swarmed out onto the shipping lanes, encouraged by Elizabeth. Although England and Spain were at peace, they pillaged Spanish ships and Spanish settlements in the names of Protestantism and plunder. Sir Francis Drake was one of them and he returned to England in 1580 with loads of Spanish treasure. His financial backers netted profits of about 4600%, one of which was secretly Queen Elizabeth. Newfoundland was the first attempt by the English at colonization, under Raleigh's half-brother Sir Humphrey Gilbert , who died at sea in 1583. Sir Walter Raleigh tried the same in warmer climates, at Roanoke off the Virginia coast. However, Roanoke mysteriously disappeared without a trace while Raleigh was away. Phillip II of Spain, used part of his massive gains in the New World to build "an invincible armada" to crush the English Protestants. In 1588, 130 Spanish ships lumbered into the English Channel when the English struck back with fast, well-manned, more maneuverable ships to cripple the cumbersome Spanish embarrassment. A massive storm arose (" The Protestant Wind ") and sank more of the Spanish fleet. The crippling of the Spanish Armada marked the beginning of the end of Spain's imperial glory, as Spanish Netherlands (Holland) claimed its independence and much of the Spanish Caribbean slipped from its grasp. It also marked the beginning of England's naval dominance in the North Atlantic. The English also had a revitalized spirit of confidence and patriotism as a result of the armada's defeat. England on the Eve of Empire England's population was mushrooming and the agricultural revolution (enclosure movement) forced farmers off of the land. So it was no coincidence that these people supplied most of the early immigrants to the colonies. By law, only the eldest son was able to inherit an estate so younger sons
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This note was uploaded on 08/31/2010 for the course AMER HIST 45213 taught by Professor Platt during the Spring '10 term at University of California, Berkeley.

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AMERICAN PAGEANT - CHAPTER 2 - Chapter Two: The Planting of...

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