Chapter 34 The Great Depression and the New Deal 1933

Chapter 34 The Great Depression and the New Deal 1933 -...

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Chapter 34 The Great Depression and the New Deal 1933-1939 As the election of 1932 neared, unemployment and poverty brought dissent of President Hoover and a demand for a change in policy. The Republicans nominated Herbert Hoover to run for president in the election of 1932. The Democrats chose Franklin Delano Roosevelt . He had been born to a wealthy New York family and served as the governor of New York. FDR: Politician in a Wheelchair Franklin D. Roosevelt’s wife, Eleanor Roosevelt , was to become the most active First Lady in history. She powerfully influenced the policies of the national government, battling for the impoverished and oppressed. Roosevelt’s commanding presence and golden speaking voice made him the premier American orator of his generation. Presidential Hopefuls of 1932 In the Democratic campaign of 1932, Roosevelt attacked the Republican Old Deal and concentrated on preaching a New Deal for the “forgotten man.” He promised to balance the nation’s budget and decrease the heavy Hooverian deficits. Although the campaign for the Republicans was dire, Herbert Hoover reaffirmed his faith in American free enterprise and individualism. He predicted prosperity if the Hawley-Smoot Tariff was repealed. Hoover’s Humiliation in 1932 Franklin Roosevelt won the election of 1932 by a sweeping majority, in both the popular vote and the Electoral College. Beginning in the election of 1932, blacks became, notably in the urban centers of the North, a vital element of the Democratic Party. FDR and the Three R ’s: Relief, Recovery, Reform Franklin Roosevelt was inaugurated on March 4, 1933. On March 6-10, President Roosevelt declared a national banking holiday as a prelude to opening the banks on a sounder basis. The Hundred Days Congress/Emergency Congress (March 9-June 16, 1933) passed a series laws in order to cope with the national emergency (The Great Depression). Roosevelt’s New Deal programs aimed at 3 R ’s: relief , recovery , reform . Short-range goals were relief and immediate recovery, and long-range goals were permanent recovery and reform of current abuses. Congress gave President Roosevelt extraordinary blank-check powers : some of the laws it passed expressly delegated legislative authority to the president. The New Dealers embraced such progressive ideas as unemployment insurance, old-age insurance, minimum-wage regulations, conservation and development of natural resources, and restrictions on child labor. Roosevelt Tackles Money and Banking The impending banking crisis caused Congress to pass the Emergency Banking Relief Act of 1933 . It gave the president power to regulate banking transactions and foreign exchange and to reopen solvent banks. President Roosevelt began to give “fireside chats” over the radio in order to restore public confidence of banks. Congress then passed the
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This note was uploaded on 08/31/2010 for the course AMER HIST 45213 taught by Professor Platt during the Spring '10 term at Berkeley.

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Chapter 34 The Great Depression and the New Deal 1933 -...

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