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DEPRESSION DBQ NOTES - Warren Harding/Calvin Coolidge...

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Warren Harding/Calvin Coolidge Business Antitrust laws feebly enforced. Trade associations created (and encouraged) and used to agree on standardization of product, publicity campaigns, and united fronts against other businesses. Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC) came to be dominated by men who were sympathetic to the railroads. Esch-Cummins Transportation Act (1920) encouraged private consolidation of the railroads and guaranteed their profitability. Farmers Capper-Volstead Act (1921) exempted farmers' marketing cooperatives from antitrust prosecution. McNary-Haugen Bill (1924-1928) was proposed energetically, but vetoed twice by Calvin Coolidge. Would have authorized the government to buy up surpluses and sell them abroad, thus keeping prices high. Miscellaneous Allowed a "McKinley-style" old order to fall back into place. Sought to entrench laissez-faire. Reforms Adkins v. Children's Hospital (1923) invalidated a minimum-wage law for women; reversed its own ruling in Muller v. Oregon (1908), which had declared that women deserved special protection in the workplace. Tariffs Fordney-McCumber Tariff (1922) boosted rates to an average of 38.5% (from an average of 27% under the Underwood Tariff ). Tariff Commission provided advice to and authorized the president to reduce or increase duties. Harding and Coolidge were much friendlier to increases and in six years they authorized thirty-two upward changes and only five reductions. Taxes Low. Herbert Hoover Business Norris-La Guardia Anti-Injunction Act (1932) outlawed "yellow dog" contracts and forbade federal courts from issuing injunctions to restrain strikes, boycotts, and peaceful picketing.
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