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Unformatted text preview: Degler 15: United States Foreign Policy
A Meridian APUSH Study Guide by John Ho, Jason Liu, and Amy Young Idealism and U.S. Foreign Policy Idealism: Americans viewed themselves on a “higher moral ground” than Europeans, and this was evident in the diplomatic relations. • Americans prided themselves in the fact that we were fighting for the higher idealistic causes of justice such as truth, natural laws, and rights of mankind, whereas Europe valued balance of power. Early Idealism Monroe Doctrine • Monarchy: Tolerable as long as it was native and not imposed; no new colonies would be countenanced (no-transfer policy) Same ideas (nothing new), because US had always acted it out previously • Principle: Based on “principle of unalienable right”; basically, the happiness of man and the protection of democracy • Involved removing European interests from the New World by policing the western hemisphere *Europe’s system of monarchy versus America’s system of democracy; in America, every one has a say in the government and “the people rule.” In democracy, equal opportunity to succeed. Common Sense Paine articulates separation from Europe is needed because Americans differ morally Jefferson • Europe: A balance of power, as in Europe, ultimately leads to war. Americans sought to avoid this. It was important to distinguish ourselves from Europe through our policies and government • Embargo Act of 1807: “Right to remain neutral”. The issue of neutral rights comes into play later in WWI and WWII. War in 1812 is a reaction to the US attempting to protect its neutral rights. Distinguishing Europe from America: • Physical isolation: with an ocean between the US and Europe, isolation was a realistic policy • Twisted imperialism: Manifest Destiny was a concoction that said it was mandated by God to spread freedom and justice to the left (Also economic incentive, the biggest motivation for Western movement was because the Pacific was a gateway to Asian economies) • US vs. European imperialism: we didn’t want control over people, we wanted markets (colonial vs. commercial imperialism) Idealism Through the 1900s (Looking Outward—New Imperialism) • Got involved in Spanish American War to free the Cubans and to New Manifest Destiny Copyright© 2006 (April 6th) All rights reserved. APUSH Study Guide v2.1 by Meridian Notes. Do not distribute or reproduce without replicating this copyright. China and Open Door Policy Philippines protect our rights as a neutral *Largest democratic values—self determination and free trade (of course, under the idealism, economic reasons properly were more influential in our reasons for releasing these notes) • U.S. justified their occupation of the Philippines by bringing democracy and preparing the Philippines for eventual independence and democratic freedom Modern Idealism • Idealism: Value of neutral rights violated by the Germans, who utilize their stealthy U-boats. During the war itself, U.S. fought to preserve democracy in the world • Return to Isolationism: Many citizens felt that WWI was unnecessary as many citizens didn’t think Wilson’s reasons for entering the war (protecting our traditional rights as a neutral) were not worth going to war for. It brought about head-in-sand “new” isolationism at the close of the war • Idealism: The U.S. was fighting for its own democracy. To protect neutral rights, Neutrality Acts 1935-1937 introduced (were willing to give up trade for isolationism) -Must be “arsenal of democracy”; Lend Lease Act grows out of this • Entangling alliances: U.S. participated in alliances such as NATO, OAS, etc. *U.S. takes responsibility to monitor nuclear weapon use World War I World War II Cold War The Movement to a Global Power Economic incentives: As U.S. production exceeded its demand, the nation relied on foreign markets to bolster the growth of the economy. Much of its expansion was at least partly from economic incentives. Timeline: In the 1700’s to 1800’s, most political figures pushed for isolationist/neutrality policies, yet by the 1900’s, most of the later political figures found that this was not possible. This caused a gradual increase of non-isolationist policies, but initiated with cautious and wary characteristics. Progression to Global Power Thomas Paine’s Common Sense: “It is the true interest of America to steer clear of European contentions” America slow to start, European powers already mass-colonizing, world power (Therefore we need a protective outlook) George Washington’s Farewell Address: In this speech, Washington not only proposes political neutrality and warnings of entangling alliances, but also advises commercial alliances Jefferson’s Louisiana Purchase of 1803: Isolationism crucial, since more land surface area for America to defend and protect. The land occupied the U.S. expansion efforts for the time period. Monroe Doctrine (largely ignored until 1850’s): Finally utilized when Napoleon III invaded Mexico and installed a puppet government. * Self-interest: U.S. expansion during the era was based on enforcing self-interest with minimal intervention. 1700’s • • 1800’s • • • Industry: America becomes a major industrial power. It soon overtakes Europe in industrial productivity. • Alfred T. Mahan’s The Influence of Sea Power upon History (1890): nationalistic SURGE for strong navy, establish power • Farmer’s surplus: Further necessitates new markets abroad. • Exporting Goods: Islands such as Hawaii and Guam acquired for stations • *WWII brought a doubt in field of security, turned U.S. policy into containment/massive retaliation/flexible response *The Major change: America as spectator, watching Europe across Atlantic becomes America as true “super power, and dominating foreign affairs.
• 1800’s-1900’s *Sample Thesis: When self-interest overrides cautiousness, a country (the U.S.) will seize the advantage(s) and slowly get enticed and dragged out into the spotlight and establish itself as a protectorate of those same benefits it had reaped as a “taker” country. Possible Examples: Spanish American War, building the Panama Canal Eras in United States’ Foreign Policy United States Foreign Policy The Early Republic 1776-1880 Doctrine in two hemispheres Turn of the Century World War I 1920 -1930 World War II Cold War 1914-1919 World War I involvement 1941-1945 World War II involvement 1880-1914 The New Manifest Destiny 1914-1919 New Isolationism 1945-1990 U.S. as a global power 1. The Early Republic 2. Turn of the Century Description of Periods in U.S. Foreign Policy The early leaders of the nation establish isolationism, i.e. avoiding all entangling alliances while permitting economic ties. The expansion westward is justified by “Manifest Destiny” and they belief that the United States was morally superior to other imperialist expansions. As the nation entered the 1900s, the western expansion had finished, causing it to look overseas (especially for new markets). The period is marked by the acquisition of colonies as “Manifest Destiny” turned to spreading democracy beyond “sea to shining sea”. The nation, despite protests, is forced to enter the European conflict 3. World War I to protect is “neutral rights”. 4. 1920s-1930s 5. World War II The nation reverts from involvement to isolationism, hoping to avoid future international conflicts. The nation attempts to avoid the conflict, even sacrificing its rights as a “neutral”. However, with the strike on Pearl Harbor, the nation is forced to enter. The United States, for the first time since the Revolution, joins in alliances and becomes an active world power. It sought to limit the influence of the Soviet Union through diplomatic involvement across the globe 6. Cold War • • • • • • • • • • United States Foreign Policy by Era The Early Republic Turn of the Century American Revolution • The Roosevelt Corollary • Washington’s Farewell • Acquisition of Hawaii • Address • Acquisition of Philippines The Monroe Doctrine • • Spanish American War Acquisition of Florida • Building the Panama and Oregon Canal War of 1812 Mexican War 1920s-1930s World War II • Washington Naval • Neutrality Acts 1935• Conference 1941 • Kellog-Briand Pact • Establishing the United • Nations Open Door Note in China Good Neighbor Policy World War I Wilson’s 14 Points Rejection of the League of Nations Rejection of the treaty of Versailles Cold War NATO, SEATO, OAS Korean War Cuban Missile Crisis Vietnam War ...
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