This preview shows page 1. Sign up to view the full content.
Unformatted text preview: Unit VII: The 1920s, 30s and World War II
A Meridian APUSH Study Guide by John Ho, Tim Qi, Jason Liu, and Willy Zhang Elections 1920 Republicans: Warren G. Harding Democrats: James M. Cox Republicans: Calvin Coolidge Democrats: John W. Davis Progressive: La Follette Republicans: Herbert Hoover Democrats: Alfred E. Smith Republicans: Herbert Hoover Democrats: Franklin D. Roosevelt Republicans: Alf Landon Democrats: Franklin D. Roosevelt Republicans: Wendell Wilkie Democrats: Franklin D. Roosevelt Republicans: Thomas E. Dewey Democrats: Franklin D. Roosevelt Elections Republican candidate Harding wins with a platform of isolationism, pledging to keep the nation out of international affairs. He leads a “front porch” campaign promising a “return to normalcy”. Cox replaced Wilson but was defeated by a large margin. Coolidge wins by a landslide, earning a second term after Harding’s death. The newly organized Progressive Party nominates a liberal candidate La Follette. However, with the economy still booming, Coolidge overwhelms his opponents and enters office for a second term (since Harding’s death). Smith, a Catholic and of an urban background, lost to Hoover. Hoover promises to “banish poverty” and continue the economic boom began by Coolidge. The Democrats achieved majorities in large cities for the first time in the election. His reputation severely damaged by the onset of the Great Depression, Hoover is overwhelmingly defeated by the Democratic candidate Roosevelt. Roosevelt introduces the “New Deal” and promises to repeal Prohibition. The Republicans attack the New Deal, deeming it wasteful and corrupt. Roosevelt promises to continue his New Deal policies, securing the favor of the workers. Roosevelt wins by a landslide failing only to secure Maine and Vermont. Roosevelt accepts the third-term nomination and runs again, promising to keep the nation out of war while preparing to some degree for conflict. Wilkie advocated greater preparedness and attacked Roosevelt’s New Deal. Roosevelt defeats Wilkie and attains a third term. With the war drawing to a close, Roosevelt remained popular. The Republicans again attacked the New Deal and called for a smaller government and a less regulated economy. Roosevelt easily defeated the Republican candidate Dewey. 1924 1928 1932 1936 1940 1944 The 1920s Decade Music: The era saw the rise of blues, ragtime, and especially jazz as popular music. Copyright© 2006 (March 26th) All rights reserved. APUSH Study Guide v2.8 by Meridian Notes. Do not distribute or reproduce without replicating this copyright. Consumer Items: Electrical devices such as refrigerators and radios became immensely popular household items. The automobile became especially widespread (see “People of the Era: Henry Ford”). These were typically purchased on credit rather than directly paid for. Presidents and Politics: Date 19201923 Presidential Administrations Description Promising a “Return to Normalcy”, Harding renewed isolationism and laissez-faire. His administration (called the “Ohio Gang”), was plagued by scandals including the infamous Teapot Dome affair where the government sold out oil reserves to companies. He died while in office to be succeeded by vice president Coolidge. Calvin Coolidge 1923- Although called “Silent Cal”, Coolidge was the first 1929 president to widely use the radio for speeches. He strictly followed the policy of laissez-faire, refraining from any type of intervention with free markets. Herbert Hoover 1929- Hoover authorized several engineering projects, 1933 promising to end poverty. However, the stock market crashed during his term, beginning the Great Depression. Initially trying to balance the budget, Hoover refrained from distributing aid, though he did raise government spending at the end of his term. In Latin America, he began the Good Neighbor policy which was continued by Roosevelt. • The Ohio Gang: Refers to Harding’s corrupt administration, named after Harding’s home state. They were responsible for several scandals during Harding’s term. Administration Warren G. Harding Legislation: Legislation During the 1920s Date Description 1919 Established Prohibition on the United States but was repealed in 1933 by the 21st Amendment. 1920 Granted women’s suffrage, allowed both genders to vote. n/a Act 18th Amendment 19th Amendment McNary-Haugen Bill The bill was twice vetoed by Coolidge despite attempts in 1924-1928 to pass the measure. The bill intended to require the government to purchase farming surpluses and sell them abroad. 1922 Reflecting the American isolationist sentiment, the tariff Fordney-McCumber raised rates up to nearly 40% blocking much foreign Tariff trade. • Laissez-Faire: The lack of business regulation marked this period, where the administrations avoided interference and passively enforced previous regulations. Literature: Literature in the 1920s Author F. Scott Fitzgerald F. Scott Description Fitzgerald’s works typified the “jazz age”, a period of glamour that characterized the 1920s. Title The Great Gatsby This Side of Paradise The Sun Also Rises • Hemmingway’s novels reflected the “Lost Generation”, the generation between World War I and the Great Depression. The Black Movement: Beginning in Harlem, the cultural renaissance arose as blacks embraced their heritage and their “black culture”. The movement included writers such as Langston Hughes and musicians like Louis Armstrong. 1920’s Foreign Policy Fitzgerald Ernest Hemmingway Foreign Policy: Date 19211922 Description A conference called by president Hoover, it concluded in a series of treaties promising naval disarmament. Led by Secretary of State Charles Evans Hughes, it focused on limiting Japanese aggression in the Pacific, establishing a set ratio of ships. The conference resulted in three Power treaties (below). The Japanese agreed to follow Hughes’s naval ratio after they received compensations. Britain, France, Japan, and U.S. would preserve status quo in pacific. This replaced and expanded the old Anglo-Japanese Alliance. Open Door Policy would be kept in China. An international pact between multiple nations where each side promised to renounce war against each other. The U.S. approved of the treaty with the reservation that the treaty would not infringe upon the right of self-defense. Immigration Laws Description Set a 3% entry rate of immigrants based on the 1910 census. The act favored southeast Europe immigrants. Amended the 1921 act to favor northwest Europe immigrants. The entry rate was reduced to 2% and the 1890 was utilized instead. Cut immigration in half, entry numbers were based on the 1920 census. Asians were excluded but residents of nations in the Americas were not restricted. Policy Washington Naval Conference Five-Power Naval Treaty Four-Power Treaty Nine-Power Treaty Kellog-Briand Pact 1922 1922 1922 1928 Act Emergency Quota Act National Origins Act Immigration Act Date 1921 1924 1929 The 1930s Decade The Hawley-Smoot Tariff: Passed under Hoover, the tariff raised rates to an unprecedented 60%, stifling foreign trade and contributing to World War I debtor nations’ inability to repay debts to the U.S. It further deepened the Great Depression and illustrates the American isolationist sentiment. Good Neighbor Policy: Begun by Hoover, the policy was pursed by Roosevelt calling for better Latin American relations. Roosevelt renounced military intervention and with the withdrawal of Marines from occupied countries, relations greatly improved. The First Hundred Days: Upon entering office, Roosevelt began enacting a series of legislation to provide relief and begin recovery. Most of his first actions targeted banks and created unemployment relief. Response to the Depression: Roosevelt’s Response • Relief and Recovery Relief and Recovery Recovery and Reform 1st Hundred Days • First New Deal • Second New Deal Banking and Financial Policies: Great Depression Banking Policies Policy Date Description 1933 Instituted the “bank holiday” which suspended Emergency Banking temporarily all banking activities and allowed Act inspection of bank records. 1933 Insured bank deposits in order to restore faith in the Glass-Steagall Banking banking system and stimulate the economy. Act Securities Act 1933 Allowed government to supervise issuing of stocks, required risk of investments to be accurately disclosed. Banking Act 1935 Established the Federal Reserve Board to control openmarket operations. The Great Depression: New Deal Programs Date 1933 Description Created the National Recovery Administration to regulate industry wages and working hours and other “codes of fair competition”. It was symbolized by the blue eagle. The Supreme Court later declared the act unconstitutional for interfering with state’s rights. A New Deal agency created to generate electricity around the Tennessee river valley. It was subject to much controversy since the government would be directly competing with private electric companies. It also helped improve farming practices around the depleted land of the region. A New Deal Program established to provide relief to young unemployed men. The organization created conservation projects, including those to prevent erosion and develop national parks. The act paid farmers to reduce crop area in order to prevent overproduction. However, it was declared Organization National Industrial Recovery Act (NRA, also NIRA) Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) 1933 Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) Agricultural Adjustment 1933 1933 and Association (AAA) unconstitutional by the Supreme Court since it specifically taxed the farmers. The AAA was reenacted in 1938 funded by general taxation in order to maintain high prices and low surpluses. 1935 Expanded relief programs begun by Hoover (FERA), Works Progress targeted household unemployed (youth had a separate Administration (WPA) program) with the gold of employing the jobless until the economy recovered. Writers, musicians, actors, and students also found part time jobs. Social Security Act 1935 Established unemployment compensation fund, provided financial assistance to elderly and handicapped • New Deal Critics: See “People of the Era” 1938 Labor Unions: Labor Unions Date 18861955 Union American Federation of Labor (AFL) Description The AFL favored craft unionism, where the workers would organize by skill or trade rather than industry. Workers would negotiate by function, even if they were in the same industry as differently skilled members. The CIO split from the AFL. The union called for 1935Congress of Industrial industry unionism, where all workers in the same 1955 Organizations (CIO) industry would unite regardless of skill. It also introduced the sit-down strike. • The Wagner Act: Also known as the National Labor Relations Act, the New Deal law protected the worker’s right to organize in unions, collectively bargain, and participate in strikes. The Supreme Court: The Supreme Court generally did not support Roosevelt’s New Deal programs, declaring several of them (including AAA and NRA) unconstitutional. Roosevelt attempted to “pack” the court by expanding the number of justices and filling the positions with his supporters, but failed against public outcry. World War II Isolationist Movement: Led by Charles Lindbergh and historian Charles A. Beard, included organizations such as the America First Committee which opposed U.S. involvement in World War II. Although an initially potent political force, there were essentially silenced by the Bombing of Pearl Harbor. The Stimson Doctrine: Secretary of State Henry Stimson issued in 1932 a doctrine stating that the U.S. will not recognize any territory obtained by force by the Japanese in the Pacific and China. The Neutrality Acts: The Neutrality Acts Passed in response to Italy’s invasion of Ethiopia, prohibited the sale of arms by citizens to any belligerents. Specifically prohibited the sale of war materials, which was not covered in the 1935 act. Two acts were passed in response to the Spanish Civil War, tightened Neutrality Act of 1935 Neutrality Act of 1936 Neutrality Acts of 1937 Neutrality Act of 1939 restrictions on citizen assistance to any belligerent. Amended previous acts, allowed sales to belligerents through the “cash and carry” basis. The “cash and carry” policy allowed sale of war materials if the recipient should pay in cash and transport the material themselves. The act clearly favored France and Great Britain which controlled sea lanes. Lend Lease Act of Amended the Neutrality Acts, permitted the president to transfer the ownership of any article of defense provided that it would be 1941 returned at the end of the war. • Neutrality Acts of 1935-1937: The Acts were aimed at preventing U.S. participation in the war. The acts prevented both government and private aid to any belligerent. They were amended, however, by the 1939 act to legally allow some support to the European democracies.
• Movement towards War:
• The Spanish Civil War Neutrality Acts of 1935, 1936, 1937 • Invasion of Poland Neutrality Act of 1939 Lend-Lease Act
• Fall of France Destroyer Deal with Great Britain Bombing of Pearl Harbor: On December 7th, 1941, the Japanese launched a surprise attack on Pearl Harbor. The act of aggression brought the United States officially into World War II. The Atlantic Charter: An agreement formed between the British Prime Minister Winston Churchill and U.S. President Franklin Roosevelt, it set 8 points for post-war goals, although the U.S. had not yet officially entered the war. It affirmed selfdetermination of governments, opposed imperialism, and promoted disarmament. War Strategy: World War II Strategies European Theatre Pacific Theatre Defeating Germany “Island Hopping” • 1940 Invasion of Poland • 1941 Pearl Harbor • 1940 Fall of France • 1942 Battle of Midway • 1940-41 Battle of Britain • 1945 Battle of Iwo Jima and Okinowa • 1942-43 Battle of Stalingrad • 1942 Battle of El Alamien • 1945 Bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki • 1943 Invasion of Italy • 1944 Invasion of Normandy (D-Day) • 1944 Battle of Bulge • Blitzkrieg: “Lightning war” utilized by Hitler and his army, which would sweep an area extremely fast and pull out when damage was done Supreme Court Cases Case Adkins v. Children’s Hospital Schechter v. U.S. Date 1923 1935 Korematsu v. U.S. 1944 Description federal minimum wage legislation for women was an unconstitutional infringement of liberty of contract, as protected by the Fifth Amendment The “sick chicken case” where the Supreme Court ruled the regulations set by the NRA unconstitutional. The legislation had granted the president the power to establish regulations which was deemed as overstepping the separation of powers. The Supreme Court upheld the government’s decision to restrict the rights of the Japanese-Americans as a wartime necessity. People of the Era Father Charles E. Coughlin Dr. Francis Townshend Critics of the New Deal Although an initial supporter of Roosevelt, he became increasingly opposed to Roosevelt’s New Deal. He regularly broadcasted speeches on the radio and became immensely popular. His anti-Semitic views and radicalism, however, eventually lost him much audience. A retired physician who lost his life savings during the Great Depression. He proposed that the government give $200 a month to all senior citizens over 60 provided that they would spend all the money in a montho, a plan that was attractive but unfeasible. Politicians Former Democratic candidate for several elections and champion of free silver, he appeared in the period in the infamous Scopes trial as the Fundamentalist lawyer upholding legislation against evolution. The Catholic and “wet” (alcoholic during Prohibition) Democratic candidate that faced Hoover in the 1928 election (See “Elections”). A Louisiana Democratic Senator who split from Roosevelt after his election and planned to mount his own presidential bid. He was noted for extreme populist view and proposed a “Share Our Wealth” program to give every family $5,000 supposedly at the expense of the rich. He was assassinated in 1935. The Secretary of Treasury during Harding’s administration’, he created tax policies favoring rapid expansion of capital investment. Governor of New York, United States Secretary of State, and Chief Justice of the United States. As Republican governor, gained national fame as investigator of malpractices by gas and insurance companies and by the coal trust Other Founder of the Ford Motor Company and first to apply assembly line manufacturing to the production automobiles. He revolutionized industrial production in the United States and Europe, and had such influence over the 20th century economy and society that his combination of mass production, high wages, and low cost is called "Fordism." William Jennings Bryans Alfred Smith Huey Long Andrew Mellon Charles Evans Hughes Henry Ford ...
View Full Document