APUSH Notes Ch. 25, 26 - Chapter 25 Industry Comes of Age...

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Chapter 25 – Industry Comes of Age (1865-1900) I. The Iron Colt Becomes an Iron Horse A. Railroad expansion greatly increased during this time period. 1. 1865 – 35,000 miles of steam railways (mostly east of Mississippi) 2. 1900 – 192,556 miles (most new tracks west of Mississippi) B. Congress begins to give land towards railroad construction. 1. In total, Washington gave 155,504,994 acres of land. Western states gave 49 million acres of land. 2. The land given was in “belts” along the proposed route. The railroads were able to choose alternate mile-square sections of land in a checkerboard fashion along the route. 3. However, until they picked exactly which pieces of land that they wanted, the entire area was withheld from other users. 4. 1887 – President Grover Cleveland opened up the unclaimed public portions of the land-grant areas, stopping the withholding practice. C. Effects of Railroads 1. Long-term preferential rates for postal service and military traffic. 2. “Cheap” way to subsidize a transportation system. It avoided new taxes. 3. Raised the land value to an average price of $3 an acre. 4. Created prosperous cities. II. Spanning the Continent with Rails A. After the South seceded, the North could build their proposed transcontinental railroad. 1. 1862 – Congress started preparing for construction. They wanted to bind the west closer to the Union. B. The Union Pacific Railroad 1. Built westward from Omaha, Nebraska. 2. For each mile of track, the company gave 20 square miles of land (alternating in 640-acre sections on either side of the track). 3. For each mile of track, the builders get a federal loan ($16,000 - $48,000 depending on terrain). 4. Workers contained many Irishmen. 5. The workers would pick up their rifles and defend themselves whenever Indians attacked them. 6. They lived in tented towns, which were known as “hells on wheels”. C. The Central Pacific Railroad 1. Built eastward from Sacramento, California through the Sierra Nevada. 2. Many Chinese laborers worked on the railroad. 3. Project ran by the “Big Four”, which included Leland Stanford of California (ex-governor) and Collis P. Huntington (lobbyist). D. “Wedding of Rails” in 1869 near Ogden, Utah III. Binding the Country with Railroad Ties A. The Northern Pacific Railroad 1. Lake Superior to Puget Sound. Completed in 1883. B. The Atchison, the Topeka, and the Santa Fe 1. Built through the southwestern deserts to California. Completed in 1884. C. The Southern Pacific Railroad 1. New Orleans to San Francisco. Completed in 1884. D. The Great Northern 1. Duluth to Seattle. Created by James J. Hill. Completed in 1893. IV. Railroad Consolidation and Mechanization A. “Commodore” Cornelius Vanderbilt 1. Originally made his wealth through steam boating but decided to try railroading. 2.
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APUSH Notes Ch. 25, 26 - Chapter 25 Industry Comes of Age...

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