[Meridian]_The_Rise_of_Industrial_America - The Rise of...

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The Rise of Industrial America Circa 1790-1900 *Stuff between stars is not part of power point, only talk* Part One; The First Industrial Revolution 1790-1860 Background: -Circa 1750 Europe’s industrial revolution begins It reaches US by late 1700s – Why so late? Cheap plentiful land – why coop self up in factory? Labor & $ for capital investment scarce Undeveloped & undiscovered raw materials Undeveloped transportation & communication systems No markets for product = no demand for product Not until 1850 was value of industrial products greater than agricultural products * Å good for PK* 3 Economic Sectors Serve as the Basis of the Infrastructure: Agriculture Factories Transportation/Communication 1. Factory System: The major components of the US factory system: a. Labor = birthrate + immigration (slaves in south) b. Samuel Slater’s Textile Mill (north) c. Eli Whitney’s Cotton Gin (South) d. Yankee Ingenuity/Entrepreneurship = inventions, business risks, etc. Labor + machinery for spinning cotton thread + cotton gin + entrepreneurship = formula for beginning to build a diverse and interdependent economy Labor: Birthrate + Immigration Future Labor Force (population growth): By 1790 = circa 4 million Americans 1790-1840 = steady, high birthrate + annual immigration on average of 60k 1830-1840 = high immigration rate (Germans & Irish) By 1840s = immigration had tripled the average *60k x 3 = 180k annual immigration* By 1850s = immigration has quadrupled *60k x 4 = 240k annual immigration* US population by: a. 1850 = 23 million
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b. 1860 = 31+ million c. 1910 = 92+ million The Machinery 1791 – Samuel Slater’s Textile Mill o Located in Pawetucket, RI o Employed Child labor 1793 – Eli Whitney’s Cotton Gin o Separated the seed form the cotton o Immediately increased the need for more labor in the south – hence the rise of slavery Yankee Ingenuity & Entrepreneurship Certainly Whitney’s Cotton Gin 1798 – Whitney’s interchangeable parts: Starts with mass production of muskets for US Army By 1850 the concept was widely used Is the basis for modern mass-production and assembly-line methods 1807-14- all of the following spurs US to have to do its OWN manufacturing: o Embargo Act. Non-Intercourse Act, Macon’s Bill #2, and War of
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This note was uploaded on 08/31/2010 for the course AMER HIST 45213 taught by Professor Platt during the Spring '10 term at University of California, Berkeley.

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[Meridian]_The_Rise_of_Industrial_America - The Rise of...

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