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Unformatted text preview: APUSH UNIT 2 STUDY GUIDE 1. Changes of the Anglican Church: Tainted by association to the British Crown a. Anglican churched merged into the De-Anglicized, Protestant Episcopal church. b. Thomas Jefferson won freedom of religion with the passage of the Virginia Statute of Religious Freedom. 2. Structure of new State Govts: Mainly based off of old charters a. The states had 13 different constitutions, based on the British way of Govt b. No unity, in currency or otherwise, between states; PROBLEM 3. Structure of govt. under the Articles vs. Constitution: Mainly a strengthening of states’ rights a. Constitution strengthened the national government b. Still kept theory of federalism, when it reserved rights not for the govt to the states Under Articles of Confederation Under Federal Constitution A loose league of states A firm union of people (not states!) 1 vote in Congress for each states 2 votes per state in Sen. Vote by pop in HOP 2/3 vote to approve any measures Simply Majority Vote, can be vetoed by Pres. Laws executed by committees of Congress Laws executed by powerful president No congressional power to levy taxes Extensive power in Congress to levy taxes No federal courts Federal courts, capped by a Supreme Court Unanimity of states for Amendment Amending made less difficult No authority to act directly upon individuals and Ample Power to enforce laws by coercion(forcing) no power to coerce states individuals and to some extent, states 4. Land Ordinance of 1785: Old Northwest under sale a. Provided that the Old Northwest, to the west of the Ohio River and under the Great Lakes, should be sold to help pay the Nat’l Debt. b. Was a supremely farsighted decision c. Land was surveyed, divided, and duly recorded, unlike other sales 5. Northwest Ordinance of 1787: criteria for the establishment of states a. A judicial compromise: Two evolutionary stages i. In the first, the northwest area would be under the tutelage of the Fed. Gov’t ii. Second, when a territory could boast 60,000 citizens, then it could apply for stateship. iii. Slavery was also banned – A groundbreaker b. If the Congress had chained the territories into permanent subordination, then there would have been certainly another Revolution in the West. 6. Shays Rebellion: Impoverished debtors rise a. A few creditors lent money to many debtors i. Many Revolutionary War fighters couldn’t pay of their mortgages b. They took up arms demanding a stop of property takeovers. c. They tried to run the courts, to enforce their demands, led by Daniel Shays, a former Captain d. A state militia crushed the “Shaysites” but the memory lingered on. i. Many panicked at the rise of the “mobocracy” and were confounded if republicanism was even going to work. ii. The time for a stronger federal govt was here. 7. The Annapolis Convention: pg.177 a. Only reps of 5 states showed up i. Alexander Hamilton, from NY, saved the convention by calling Congress to meet again in Philly the next year. ii. It was agreed upon that this Philly Constitution should deal with AOC 8. The Federalist Paper: Documents arguing for a stronger national government a. Written by Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, and by John Jay b. Written about separation of powers , “Ambition can be used to check Ambition” c. d. Judicial powers structure of new legislative governments e. The need for Federalism: the concept of state governments and of federal governments coexisting f. Other things relating to govts 9. Opposition to the Constitution: May believed it was unnecessary a. The Constitution, the nay-sayers believed was taking rights away from the states b. Many despised a strong national govt, and saw it as a symbol of the forthcoming tyranny c. They believed that , according to Jefferson, “Indeed, I think all the good of this new Constitution might have been couched in three or four articles, to be added to the good, old and venerable fabric.” 10. Marbury vs. Madison: trial that made Judicial review a. Marbury, an appointed judge by the Federalists, sued for his delivery, when Jefferson shelved his commission b. Justice Marshall, in the famous case, upheld Judicial Review, which the Supreme Court has the final say in the constitutionality of a document. 11. Federalists vs. Anti-Federalists: 12. Hamilton’s Economic Plan: To boost the economy a. Funding Debts at Par: Hamilton wanted to pay off all public debts at par, trying to improve the credit and the economy of the country b. The Bank of the United States: Hamilton, with a bargain that moved the capital to the Potomac, pushed for a bank, which prints money, stores money, and acts as the federal funding vehicle. c. Whiskey Tax: Self-explanatory i. Hated by the poor d. Protective Tariff: Tax on import and export 13. Whiskey Rebellion: Backcountry whiskey drinkers revolted a. they did not like the whiskey tax, which hampered their use of whiskey as a staple currency b. similar to Shays, left a lingering memory 14. The Marshall Court: Federalist Chief Justice John Marshall’s Supreme Court a. Marshall made many Federalist decisions, long after the Feds died out. 15. The Hartford Convention: 16. Franco-American Alliance: A marriage of inconvenience a. Common Enemy of the British, natural to ally b. XYZ affair i. French wanted bribes, just to talk ii. Liked by the Dem-Reps c. Impressments: the French began forcing American sailors to join their navy against Britain d. French wanted to use America for their own interests in the N.America e. Louisiana Purchase eased some relations f. The Convention of 1800: Nullified the F-A relationship 17. The Purpose of the Constitutional Convention: To solely discuss changes to the AOC 18. Compromises at the Convention: a. Bicameral House Compromise: by population and by state count b. Electoral College c. 3/5 compromise for slaves d. 1807 slave trade compromise: would not talk about the slave trade till 1807 e. Strong exec branch 19. Taxes a. Protective Tax, Hamilton b. Whiskey Tax, Hamilton c. Other, TRUN FILL EM IN 20. Alien and Sedition Acts: made it harder for aliens to naturalize and people to speak out a. One need 14 years for naturalization b. Sedition acts claimed that anyone who speak out against government could be charged with libel and be jailed, a suppression of freedom of speech. 21. Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions: Compact theory a. Penned by Jefferson and Madison, the compact theory stated that the 13 sovereign states, in creating a federal government, and entered into a contract regarding its jurisdiction. b. In other words, the states had the final say on whether the fed govt had overstepped its line. c. No other states followed suit. 22. Electoral College Voting Problems (Election of 1800): Jefferson and Burr both tie a. Since each elector had 2 votes, by chance, TJ and Burr had the same number of votes b. The HOR had to solve the tie. 23. Washington’s farewell address: Washington had some golden nuggets a. Isolationism: “Stay out and away” b. No entangling alliance, unless absolutely necessary c. No military combat 24. Jay’s Treaty: Jay strikes a deal with UK a. Jay, to avert war, took to London to get a deal done i. The British promised to DMZ on the U.S soil, pay for American ships, but did not say anything about future impressments. ii. The Americans had to pay back all debts still owed iii. Democratic Republicans were outraged, The South was super angry 25. Pinckney’s Treaty: Spain-US over the Miss. a. Spain scared that the Americans were allying with Britain, moved to give the Americans everything they wanted i. Full control of the Mississippi and territory of Florida 26. Treaty of Greenville: American-Indian treaty a. The Indians, abandoned by their British allies, were smashed by the Americans i. They conceded their claims in the Ohio Country 27. Implied Powers 28. Express Powers 29. The Elastic Clause: “necessary and proper” a. It stated that the federal government could do whatever it deemed necessary and proper. i. Used in argument for the national bank 30. 10th Amendment: concept of “Federalism” a. Powers not delegated to the national govt, will go to the states and the people 31. The Bank Argument : See above a. Dem-Reps claimed unconstitutionality b. Federalists invoked the Elastic Clause c. Other lame arguments, such as currency, credit and social classes, blah blah blah 32. US/Canadian Border Problems: Illegal Immigrants joke a. Rights to fisheries b. British forts still there 33. XYZ affair: see F-A alliance 34. Rush-Bagot treaty: See Foreign Policy Guide 35. Monroe Doctrine: See Foreign Policy Guide 36. The Bill of Rights: An Amendment guaranteeing the rights of man a. Freedoms b. Right to speedy trial c. Cannot be searched without warrant d. others 37. Judiciary Act 1789: Created a whole bunch of smaller courts a. These smaller courts were still under Supreme Court 38. Financing the Revolutionary War: a. War Bonds i. Lost basically all value 1. Congress then later decided to pay back at full value b. French Treaty i. French gave us money c. States Debts: States also incurred Debts 39. The War of 1812: Look at bailey or Foreign Policy guide a. Basically War Hawks said “On to Canada”, and they didn’t get anything i. Thought it was as easy as beating Nishant in a arm-wrestling match 1. But it was as hard as lifting him ii. British came back, burned Washington, but couldn’t win the war iii. The Americans felt proud that they could hold British, and that they didn’t lose any land iv. Did wonders for American Rep and ended in a virtual draw b. Critics did not want another war i. Not against UK anyway 40. The French Revolution: Americans felt proud that another country was revolting a. However, when things turned bloody, they didn’t want to associate b. Dem-Reps happy at the fact that lower classes ruled in France c. Federalist watched their necks(nice pun eh) in America 41. Treaty of Paris: See Foreign Policy Guide 42. The Treaty of Ghent: See Foreign Policy Guide 43. Battle of New Orleans: Andrew Jackson defends N.O a. He capitalized on British mistake and butchered the redcoats b. This was unnecessary as the Treaty of Ghent had already been signed 44. Non-intercourse Act: See Foreign Policy Guide 45. Macon’s Bill No. 2: See Foreign Policy Guide 46. No/So/East/West arguing difference: a. Sectional Strife i. NORTH VS SOUTH was predominant in all Dem-Rep and Fed arguments ii. Whenever the poor and rich fought, it was EAST VS WEST ...
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This note was uploaded on 08/31/2010 for the course HIST 45213 taught by Professor Platt during the Spring '10 term at University of California, Berkeley.

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