SG23 - Study Guide for Chapter 23 The Ordeal of...

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Study Guide for Chapter 23 The Ordeal of Reconstruction, 1865-1877 PART I: Reviewing the Chapter 1. Checklist of Learning Objectives After mastering this chapter, you should be able to 2. define the major problems facing the South and the nation after the Civil War. 3. describe the responses of both whites and African-Americans to the end of slavery. 4. analyze the differences between the presidential and congressional approaches to Reconstruction. 5. explain how the blunders of President Johnson and the white South opened the door to more radical congressional Reconstruction policies. 6. describe the actual effects of congressional Reconstruction in the South. 7. indicate how militant white opposition gradually undermined the Republican attempt to empower Southern blacks. 8. explain why the radical Republicans impeached Johnson but failed to convict him. 9. explain the legacy of Reconstruction, and assess its successes and failures. 10.Glossary To build your social science vocabulary, familiarize yourself with the following terms. 11. ringleader A person who leads others, especially in unlawful acts or opposition to authority. “What should be done with the captured Confederate ringleaders?…” 12. civil disabilities Legally imposed restrictions of a person’s civil rights or liberties. “But Congress did not remove all remaining civil disabilities until thirty years later….” 13. posthumously After death. “But Congress…only posthumously restored Davis’s citizenship more than a century later.” 14. mutual aid societies Nonprofit organizations designed to provide their members with financial and social benefits, often including medical aid, life insurance, funeral costs, and disaster relief. “This gave rise to other benevolent, fraternal, and mutual aid societies.” 15. confiscation [confiscated] Legal government seizure of private property without compensation. “… the bureau was authorized to settle former slaves on forty-acre tracts confiscated from the Confederates….” 16. dogmatic Holding to strong ideas or opinions without evidence or proof. “…he was a dogmatic champion of states’ rights….” 17. lease To enter into a contract by which one party gives another use of land, buildings, or other property for a fixed time and fee. “. ..some [codes] even barred blacks from renting or leasing land.” 18. chain gang A group of prisoners chained together while working. “A black could be punished for ‘idleness’ by being sentenced to work on a chain gang.” 19. sharecrop An agricultural system in which a tenant receives land, tools, and seed on credit and pledges in return a share of the crop to the creditor. “…former slaves slipped into the status of sharecropper farmers….” 20. peonage A system in which debtors are held in servitude, to labor for their creditors. “Luck-less sharecroppers gradually sank into a morass of virtual peonage….” 21. scalawag A white Southerner who supported Republican Reconstruction after the Civil War. “The ‘scalawags’ were Southerners, often former Unionists or Whigs.” 1
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SG23 - Study Guide for Chapter 23 The Ordeal of...

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