SG32 - Study Guide for Chapter#32 Wilsonian Progressivism...

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Study Guide for Chapter #32 Wilsonian Progressivism at Home and Abroad, 1912-1916 PART I: Reviewing the Chapter A. Checklist of Learning Objectives After mastering this chapter, you should be able to 1. discuss the key issues of the pivotal 1912 election and the basic principles of Wilsonian progressivism. 2. describe how Wilson successfully reformed the “triple wall of privilege.” 3. state the basic features of Wilson’s foreign policy and explain how they drew him into intervention in Latin America. 4. describe America’s response to World War I and explain the increasingly sharp conflict over America’s policies toward Germany. 5. explain how domestic and foreign controversies played into Wilson’s narrow victory over Hughes in 1916. B. Glossary To build your social science vocabulary, familiarize yourself with the following terms. 1. entrepreneurship The process whereby an individual initiates a business at some risk in order to expand it and thereby earn a profit. “Wilson’s New Freedom . . . favored small enterprise [and] entrepreneurship . . . . “ 2. self-determination In politics, the right of a people to shape its own national identity and form og government, without outside coercion of influence. “. . . [the Confederacy] . . . partly inspired his ideal of self-determination for minority peoples. . . . ” 3. piety Devotion to religious duty and practices. “. . . Wilson was reared in an atmosphere of fervent piety.” 4. graduated income tax A tax on income in which the taxation rates are progressively higher for those whit higher income. “Congress enacted a graduated income tax. . . . “ 5. levy A forcible tax or other imposition. “. . . [the] income tax [began] with a modest levy on income over 3,000. . . .” 6. inelasticity The inability to expand or contract rapidly. “[The] most serious shortcoming [of the country’s financial structure] was the inelasticity of the currency.” 7. commercial paper Any business document having monetary or exchangeable value. “The . . . paper money [was] backed by commercial paper. . . .” 8. promissory note a written pledge to pay a certain person a specified sum of money at a certain time. “The . . . paper money [was] backed by commercial paper, such as promissory notes of business people.” 9. adulteration Debasing a product or substance by substituting poor-quality components ingredients. “. . . unfair trade practices . . . includ[ed] . . mislabeling, adulteration, and bribery.” 10. agricultural extension The system of providing services and advice to farmers through dispersed local agents. “Other laws . . . provid[ed] for . . . the establishment of agricultural exten-sion work in the state colleges.” 11. enclave A small territory surrounded by foreign or hostile territory. “Though often segregated in Spanish-speaking enclaves, they helped to create a unique borderland culture. . . .” 1
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12. gringo Contemptuous Latin American term for North Americans. “Willa displayed his hatred of the gringos. . . .” 13. censor An official who examines publications, mail, literature, and so forth in order to remove or prohibit the distribution of material deemed dangerous or offensive.
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