SG08 - Study Guide for Chapter 8 America Secedes from the...

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Study Guide for Chapter 8 America Secedes from the Empire, 1775 – 1783 PART I: Reviewing the Chapter A. Checklist of Learning Objectives After mastering this chapter, you should be able to 1. describe how America passed from military hostilities with Britain to declaring its independence. 2. explain the principal ideas of “republicanism’ developed by Thomas Paine and other American leaders. 3. explain the specific reasons and general principles used in the Declaration of Independence to justify America’s separation. 4. explain why some Americans remained loyal to Britain and what happened to them during and after the Revolution. 5. describe how the British attempt to crush the Revolution quickly was foiled, especially by the Battle of Saratoga. 6. describe the military and political obstacles Washington and his generals had to overcome before the final victory at Yorktown. 7. describe the terms of the Treaty of Paris and explain how America was able to achieve such a stunning diplomatic victory. A. Glossary To build your social science vocabulary, familiarize yourself with the following terms. 1. mercenary A professional soldier who serves in a foreign army for pay. “Why bring in outside mercenaries . . . ?” 2. indictment A formal written accusation charging someone with a crime. “The overdrawn bill of indictment included imposing taxes without consent. . . .” 3. dictatorship A form of government characterized by absolute state power and the unlimited authority of the ruler. “The [charges] included . . . establishing a military dictatorship. . . .” 4. neutral A nation or person not taking sides in a war. “Many colonists were apathetic or neutral. . . .” 5. civilian A citizen not in military service. “The opposing forces contended . . . for the allegiance . . . of the civilian population.” 6. traitor One who betrays a country by aiding an enemy. “. . . they regarded their opponents, not themselves, as traitors.” 7. confiscate To seize private property for public use, often as a penalty. “The estates of many of the fugitives were confiscated. . . .” 8. envoy A messenger or agent sent by a government on official business. “Benjamin Franklin, recently sent to Paris as an envoy, jested [about] Howe. . . .” 9. rabble A mass of disorderly and crude common people. “This rabble was nevertheless whipped into a professional army. . . .” 10. arsenal A place for making or storing weapons and ammunition. “About 90 percent of all the gunpowder . . . came from French arsenals.” 11. isolationist Concerning the belief that a country should take little or no part in foreign affairs, especially through alliances or wars. “The American people, with ingrained isolationist tendencies, accepted the French entanglement with distaste.” 12. hereditary Passed down from generation to generation. “[The alliance] involved a hereditary foe. . . . .” 1
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13. blockade The isolation of a place by hostile ships or troops. “Now the French had powerful
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SG08 - Study Guide for Chapter 8 America Secedes from the...

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