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SG10 - Study Guide for Chapter 10 Launching the New Ship of...

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Study Guide for Chapter 10 Launching the New Ship of State, 1789-1800 PART I: Reviewing the Chapter A. Checklist of Learning Objectives After mastering this chapter, you should be able to 1. describe how the new federal government was put into place and began functioning. 2. describe the various means Alexander Hamilton used to put the federal government on a sound financial footing. 3. explain how the conflict over Hamilton’s policies led to the emergence of the first political parties. 4. describe the polarizing effects of the French Revolution on American foreign policy and politics from 1790 to 1800. 5. explain why Washington negotiated the conciliatory Jay’s Treaty with the British and why it provoked Jeffersonian outrage. 6. describe the causes of the undeclared war with France and explain Adam’s decision to move toward peace rather than declare war. 7. describe the poisonous political atmosphere that produced the Alien and Sedition Acts and the Kentucky and Virginia resolutions. 8. describe the contrasting membership and principles of the Hamiltonian Federalists and the Jeffersonian Republicans. B. Glossary To build your social science vocabulary, familiarize yourself with the following terms. 9. census An official count of population; in the United States, the federal census occurs every ten years. “…the first official census of 1790 recorded almost 4 million people.” 10. public debt The debt of a government or nation to individual creditors, also called the national debt. “…the public debt…was mountainous.” 11. cabinet The body of official advisers to the head of a government; in the United States, it consists of the heads of the major executive departments. “The Constitution does not mention a cabinet…” 12. circuit court A court that hears cases in several designated locations rather than a single place. “The act organized…federal district and circuit courts…” 13. fiscal Concerning public finances-expenditures and revenues. “His plan was to shape the fiscal policies of the administration…” 14. assumption The appropriation or taking on of obligations not originally one’s own. “The secretary made a convincing case for ‘assumption.’” 15. excise A tax on the manufacture, sale, or consumption of certain products. “Hamilton… secured from Congress an excise tax on a few domestic items, notably whiskey.” 16. stock The shares of capital ownership gained from investing in a corporate enterprise; the term also refers to the certificates representing such shares. “Stock was thrown open to public sale.” 17. medium of exchange Any item, paper or otherwise, used as money. “They regarded [whiskey] as a …medium of exchange.” 1
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10. despotism Arbitrary or tyrannical rule. “The American people, loving liberty and deploring despotism, were pleased.” 11. impress To force people or property into public service without choice. “They…impressed scored of seamen into service on English vessels…” 12. assimilation The merging of diverse cultures or peoples into one. “The drastic new law
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