SG05 - Study Guide for Chapter 5 Colonial Society on the...

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Study Guide for Chapter 5 Colonial Society on the Eve of Revolution, 1700 – 1775 Part I: Reviewing the Chapter A. Checklist of Learning Objectives After mastering this chapter, you should be able to 1. Describe the basic population and social structure of the eighteenth-century colonies and indicate how they had changed since the seventeenth-century. 2. Explain how the economic development of the colonies altered the patterns of social prestige and wealth. 3. Explain the cause and effects of the Great Awakening. 4. Describe the origins and development of education, culture, and the learning professions in the colonies. 5. Describe the basic features of colonial politics, including the role of various official and informal political institutions. 2. Glossary To build your social science vocabulary, familiarize yourself with the following terms. 1. melting pot The mingling of diverse ethnic groups in America, including the idea that these groups are or should be “melting” into a single culture or people. “Colonial America was a melting pot and has been from the outset.” 2. sect A small religious group that has broken away from some larger mainstream church. “They belonged to several different Protestant sects….” 3. agitators Those who seek to excite or persuade the public on some issue. “Already experienced colonizers and agitators in Ireland, the Scots-Irish proved to be superb frontiersmen….” 4. stratification The visible arrangement of society into a hierarchical pattern, with distinct social groups layered one on top of the other. “…colonial society….was beginning to show signs of stratification….” 5. mobility The capacity to pass readily from one social or economic condition to another. “… barriers to mobility…raised worries about the ‘Europeanization’ of America.” 6. elite The smaller group at the top of a society or institution, usually possessing wealth, power, or special privileges. “…these elites now feathered their nests more finely.” 7. almshouse A home for the poor, supported by charity or public funds. “Both Philadelphia and New York built almshouses in the 1730s….” 8. gentry Landowners of substantial property, social standing, and leisure, but not titled nobility. “Wealth was concentrated in the hands of the largest slave-owners, widening the gap between the prosperous gentry and the ‘poor whites’…” 9. tenant farmer One who rents rather than owns land. “…the ‘poor whites’…were increasingly forced to become tenant farmers.” 10. penal code The body of criminal laws specifying offenses and prescribing punishments. “But many convicts were the unfortunate victims…of a viciously unfair English penal code….” 11. veto The executive power to prevent acts passed by the legislature from becoming law. “Thomas Jefferson…assailed such vetoes….”
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This note was uploaded on 08/31/2010 for the course HIST 45213 taught by Professor Platt during the Spring '10 term at University of California, Berkeley.

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SG05 - Study Guide for Chapter 5 Colonial Society on the...

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