Sg01 - Study Guide for Chapter 1 New World Beginnings,...

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Study Guide for Chapter 1 New World Beginnings, 33,000 B.C. – A.D. 1768 Part I: Reviewing the Chapter 1. Checklist of Learning Objectives After mastering this chapter, you should be able to 1. describe the geological and geographical conditions that set the stage for North American history 2. describe the origin and development of the major Indian cultures of the Americas. 3. explain the developments in Europe and Africa that led up to Columbus’s voyage to America. 4. explain the changes and conflicts that occurred when the diverse worlds of Europe, Africa and the Americas collided after 1492. 5. describe the Spanish conquest of Mexico and South America and identify the major features of Spanish colonization and expansion in North America. i. Glossary To build you social science vocabulary, familiarize yourself with the following terms. 1. nation-state The modern form of political society that combines centralized government with a high degree of ethnic and cultural unity. “No dense concentrations of population or complex nation-states…existed in North America….” 2. matrilinear the form of society in which family line, power, and wealth are passed primarily through the female side. “…many North American native peoples, including the Iroquois. developed matrilinear cultures….” 3. confederacy An alliance or league of nations or peoples looser than a federation. “The Iroquois Confederacy developed the political and organizational skills….” 4. primeval Concerning the earliest origin of things. “…the whispering, primeval forests….” 5. saga A lengthy story or poem recounting the great deeds and adventures of a people and their heros. “…their discovery was forgotten, except in Scandinavian saga song.” 6. middlemen In trading systems, those dealers who operate between the original buyers and the retail merchants who sell to consumers. “Muslim middlemen exacted a heavy toll en route.” 7. caravel A small vessel with a high deck and three triangular sails. “…they developed the caravel, a ship that could sail more closely into the wind….” 8. plantation A large-scale agricultural enterprise growing commercial crop and usually employing coerced or slave labor. “They build up their own systematic traffic in slaves to work the sugar plantations….” 9. ecosystem A naturally evolved network of relations among organisms in a stable environment. “Two ecosystems…commingled and clashed when Columbus waded ashore.” 10. demographic Concerning the general characteristic of a given population, including such factors as numbers, age, gender, birth and death rates, and so on. “… a demographic catastrophe without parallel in human history.” 11. conquistador A Spanish conqueror or adventurer in the Americas. “Spanish conquistadors (conquerors) fanned out across…American continents.” 12. capitalism An economic system characterized by private property , generally free trade, and open and accessible markets. “…the fuel that fed the growth of the economic system known as capitalism.” 1
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13. encomienda
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This note was uploaded on 08/31/2010 for the course HIST 45213 taught by Professor Platt during the Spring '10 term at University of California, Berkeley.

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Sg01 - Study Guide for Chapter 1 New World Beginnings,...

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