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SG26 - Study Guide for Chapter 26 America Moves to the City...

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Study Guide for Chapter 26 America Moves to the City, 1865-1900 PART I: Reviewing the Chapter A. Checklist of Learning Objectives After mastering this chapter, you should be able to 1. describe the new industrial city and its impact on American society. 2. describe the “New Immigration” and explain why it aroused opposition from many native-born Americans. 3. discuss the efforts of social reformers and churches to aid the New Immigrants and alleviate urban problems. 4. analyze the changes in American religious life in the late nineteenth century. 5. explain the changes in American education from elementary to the college level. 6. describe the literary and cultural life of the period, including the widespread trend towards “realism.” 7. explain the growing national debates about morality in the late nineteenth century, particularly in relation to the changing roles of women and the family. B. Glossary To build your social science vocabulary, familiarize yourself with the following terms. 1. megalopolis An extensive, heavily populated area, containing several dense urban centers. “The... city gave way to the immense and impersonal megalopolis...” 2. tenement A multi-dwelling building, often poor or overcrowded. “The cities... harbored... towering skyscrapers and stinking tenements.” 3. affluence An abundance of wealth. “These leafy ‘bedroom communities’ eventually ringed the bring-and-concrete cities with greenbelt of affluence.” 4. despotism Government by an absolute or tyrannical ruler. “... people had grown accustomed to cringing before despotism.” 5. parochial Concerning a parish or small district. “Catholics expanded their parochial-school system .... 6. sweatshop A factory where employees are forced to work long hours under difficult conditions for meager wages. “The women of Hull House successfully lobbied in 1893 for an Illinois anti- sweatshop law that protected women workers...” 7. pauper A poor person, often one who lives on tax-supported charity. “The first restrictive law... banged the gate in the face of paupers...” 8. convert A person who turns from one religion or set of beliefs to another. “A fertile field for converts was found in America’s harried, nerve-racked, and urbanized civilization...” 9. Fundamentalist A Protestant who rejects religious modernism and adheres to a strict and literal interpretation of Christian doctrine and Scriptures. “Conservatives, or ‘Fundamentalists,’ stood firmly on the Scripture... ” 10. agnostic One who believes that there can be no human knowledge of any God or gods. “The... skeptic... lectured widely on ‘Some Mistakes of Moses’ and ‘Why I Am an Agnostic.” 11. behavioral psychology The branch of psychology that examines human action, often considering it more important tan mental or inward states. “His [work] helped to establish the modern discipline of behavioral psychology.” 12. syndicated In journalism, material that is sold by an organization for publication in several newspapers. “Bare-knuckle editorials were... being supplanted by feature articles and non- controversial syndicated material.” 1
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