America A Narrative History (Brief Eleventh Edition) (Vol. Volume 2) 11th.pdf - AMERICA usahistorybrief11_ch00_fmvol2_i-xxxi.indd 1 4:48 PM

America A Narrative History (Brief Eleventh Edition) (Vol. Volume 2) 11th.pdf

This preview shows page 1 out of 993 pages.

Unformatted text preview: AMERICA usahistorybrief11_ch00_fmvol2_i-xxxi.indd 1 17/10/18 4:48 PM usahistorybrief11_ch00_fmvol2_i-xxxi.indd 2 17/10/18 4:48 PM • b r ie f e l e ve nth e dition volu m e 2 AMERICA A Narrative History David Emory Shi n W. W. NORTON & COMPANY, INC. New York • London usahistorybrief11_ch00_fmvol2_i-xxxi.indd 3 17/10/18 4:48 PM Copyright © 2019, 2016, 2013, 2010, 2007, 2004, 1999, 1996, 1992, 1988, 1984 by W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. All rights reserved Printed in Canada Editor: Jon Durbin Associate Managing Editor: Melissa Atkin Editorial Assistant: Lily Gellman Managing Editor, College: Marian Johnson Managing Editor, College Digital Media: Kim Yi Production Managers: Ashley Horna and Benjamin Reynolds Media Editor: Carson Russell Media Project Editor: Rachel Mayer Media Associate Editor: Sarah Rose Aquilina Media Editorial Assistant: Alexandra Malakhoff Marketing Manager, History: Sarah England Bartley Design Director: Hope Goodell-Miller Photo Editor: Travis Carr Composition: SixRedMarbles / Jouve – Brattleboro, VT Manufacturing:Transcontinental Interglobe Cover design: Tiani Kennedy Cover image: New York, East Side, 1924 (oil on canvas), Grabach, John R. (1886– 1981) / Private Collection / Photo © Christie’s Images / Bridgeman Images. Permission to use copyrighted material is included on page A157. The Library of Congress has cataloged the Full, One-Volume, Edition as follows: Names: Shi, David Emory, author. Title: America : a narrative history / David Emory Shi. Description: Eleventh edition. | New York : W. W. Norton & Company, 2019. | Includes bibliographical references and index. Identifiers: LCCN 2018046039 | ISBN 9780393689693 (hardcover : alk. paper) Subjects: LCSH: United States—History—Textbooks. Classification: LCC E178.1 .T55 2019 | DDC 973—dc23 LC record available at ISBN this edition: 978-0-393-66897-1 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc., 500 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY 10110-0017 wwnorton.com W. W. Norton & Company Ltd., 15 Carlisle Street, London W1D 3BS 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 usahistorybrief11_ch00_fmvol2_i-xxxi.indd 4 17/10/18 4:48 PM FOR GEORGE B. TINDALL (1921–2006) HISTORIAN, COLLEAGUE, FRIEND usahistorybrief11_ch00_fmvol2_i-xxxi.indd 5 17/10/18 4:48 PM usahistorybrief11_ch00_fmvol2_i-xxxi.indd 6 17/10/18 4:48 PM DAVID EMORY SHI is a professor of history and the president emeritus of Furman University. He also taught for seventeen years at Davidson College, where he chaired the history department, served as the Frontis Johnson Professor of History, and won the Distinguished Teaching Award. He is the author of several books on American cultural history, including the award-winning The Simple Life: Plain Living and High Thinking in American Culture, Facing Facts: Realism in American Thought and Culture, 1850–1920, and The Bell Tower and Beyond: Reflections on Learning and Living. usahistorybrief11_ch00_fmvol2_i-xxxi.indd 7 17/10/18 4:48 PM usahistorybrief11_ch00_fmvol2_i-xxxi.indd 8 17/10/18 4:48 PM CONTENTS List of Maps  •  xiii Preface  •  xv Acknowledgments  •  xxv 16  The Era of Reconstruction, 1865–1877  638 The War’s Aftermath in the South  640  •  Debates over Political Reconstruction  642  •  Black Society under Reconstruction  655  •  The Grant Administration  664  •  Reconstruction’s Significance  678 PART FIVE  GROWING PAINS  683 17  Business and Labor in the Industrial Era, 1860–1900  686 Industrial and Agricultural Growth  688  •  The Rise of Big Business  699  •  The Alliance of Business and Politics  706  •  An Industrial Society  708 18  T he New South and the New West, 1865–1900  730 The Myth of the New South  732  •  The Failings of the New South  734  • Race Relations during the 1890s  737  •  The Settling of the New West  746  •  Life in the New West  752  •  The Fate of Western Indians  758  •  The End of the Frontier  767 ix usahistorybrief11_ch00_fmvol2_i-xxxi.indd 9 17/10/18 4:48 PM x  Contents 19  Political Stalemate and Rural Revolt, 1865–1900  772 Urban America  773  •  The New Immigration  776  •  Cultural Life  780  • Gilded Age Politics  787  •  Hayes and Civil Service Reform  791  •  Farmers and the “Money Problem”  800 PART SIX  MODERN AMERICA  815 20  Seizing an American Empire, 1865–1913  818 Toward the New Imperialism  820  •  Expansion in the Pacific  821  •  The Spanish-American War (The War of 1898)  824  •  Consequences of Victory  830  •  Roosevelt’s “Big-Stick” Diplomacy  838 21  The Progressive Era, 1890–1920  850 The Progressive Impulse  852  •  The Sources of Progressivism  853  •  Progressives’ Aims and Achievements  861  •  Progressivism under Roosevelt and Taft  868  •  Woodrow Wilson: A Progressive Southerner  879 22  America and the Great War, 1914–1920  894 An Uneasy Neutrality  896  •  Mobilizing a Nation  907  •  The American Role in the War  914  •  The Politics of Peace  922  •  Stumbling from War to Peace  931 23  A Clash of Cultures, 1920–1929  940 The Nation in 1920  943  •  The “Jazz Age”  951  •  The Modernist Revolt  963 24  The Reactionary Twenties  972 Reactionary Conservatism and Immigration Restriction  974  •  A Republican Resurgence  985  •  The Rise of Herbert Hoover  998  • 1929—A Turning Point  1002  •  The Onset of the Great Depression  1002  •  The Human Toll of the Depression  1006  •  From Hooverism to the New Deal  1011 usahistorybrief11_ch00_fmvol2_i-xxxi.indd 10 17/10/18 4:48 PM Contents  xi 25  The New Deal, 1933–1939  1018 Roosevelt’s New Deal  1020  •  The New Deal under Fire  1031  •  The Second New Deal  1043 26  The Second World War, 1933–1945  1054 The Rise of Fascism in Europe  1056  •  From Isolationism to Intervention  1059  •  Arsenal of Democracy  1073  •  The Allied Drive toward Berlin  1082  • The Pacific War  1095  •  A New Age Is Born  1101 PART SEVEN  THE AMERICAN AGE  1107 27  T he Cold War and the Fair Deal, 1945–1952  1110 Truman and the Cold War  1112  •  The Containment Policy  1115  • Expanding the New Deal  1122  •  The Cold War Heats Up  1133  •  Another Red Scare  1140 28  America in the Fifties  1148 Moderate Republicanism  1150  •  A People of Plenty  1155  •  Cracks in the Picture Window  1165  •  The Civil Rights Movement  1169  •  Foreign Policy in the Fifties  1177 29  A New Frontier and a Great Society, 1960–1968  1190 The New Frontier  1192  •  Civil Rights Triumphant  1204  •  The Great Society  1217  •  The Tragedy of Vietnam  1227  •  The Turmoil of the Sixties  1233 30  Rebellion and Reaction, 1960s and 1970s  1240 “Forever Young”: The Youth Revolt  1242  •  Social Activism Spreads  1251  •  Nixon and the Revival of Conservatism  1262  •  “Peace with Honor”: Ending the Vietnam War  1270  •  The Nixon Doctrine and a Thawing Cold War  1277  •  Watergate  1281 usahistorybrief11_ch00_fmvol2_i-xxxi.indd 11 17/10/18 4:48 PM xii  Contents 31  Conservative Revival, 1977–1990  1292 The Carter Presidency  1294  •  The Rise of Ronald Reagan  1300  •  The Reagan Revolution  1304  •  An Anti-Soviet Foreign Policy  1310  •  The Changing Economic and Social Landscape  1316  •  The Presidency of George H. W. Bush  1320 32  Twenty-First-Century America, 1993–Present  1332 America’s Changing Population  1334  •  The Clinton Presidency (1993– 2001)  1335  •  A Chaotic Start to a New Century  1345  • Second-Term Blues  1355  •  A Historic New Presidency  1358  •  A Populist President  1385  •  The 100-Day Mark  1392 Glossary  A1 Appendix  A69 Further Readings  A133 Credits  A155 Index  A159 usahistorybrief11_ch00_fmvol2_i-xxxi.indd 12 17/10/18 4:48 PM MAPS Reconstruction, 1865–1877 Transcontinental Railroad Lines, 1880s Sharecropping and Tenancy, 1880–1900 The New West Indian Wars The Emergence of Large Cities, 1880 The Emergence of Large Cities, 1920 The Election of 1896 U.S. Interests in the Pacific U.S. Interests in the Caribbean Women’s Suffrage, 1869–1914 The Election of 1912 The Great War in Europe, 1914 The Great War, the Western Front, 1918 Europe after the Treaty of Versailles, 1918 Aggression in Europe, 1935–1939 Japanese Expansion before the Attack on Pearl Harbor World War II in Europe and Africa, 1942–1945 World War II in the Pacific, 1942–1945 The Occupation of Germany and Austria The Election of 1948 The Korean War, 1950 and 1950–1953 The Election of 1952 Postwar Alliances: The Far East Postwar Alliances: Europe, North Africa, the Middle East The Election of 1960 Vietnam, 1966 The Election of 1968 661 698 736 748–749 765 775 776 811 835 841 860 882 899 919 928 1064 1071 1088 1098 1120 1132 1138 1152 1181 1184 1195 1230 1236 xiii usahistorybrief11_ch00_fmvol2_i-xxxi.indd 13 17/10/18 4:48 PM xiv  Maps The Election of 1980 The Election of 1988 The Election of 2000 The Election of 2004 The Election of 2008 The Election of 2016 usahistorybrief11_ch00_fmvol2_i-xxxi.indd 14 1305 1321 1346 1355 1360 1385 17/10/18 4:48 PM PREFACE T his Eleventh Edition of America: A Narrative History Brief E ­ dition improves upon a textbook celebrated for its compelling narrative history of the American experience. Over the past thirty years, I have sought to write an engaging book centered on political and economic developments animated by colorful characters, informed by balanced analysis and social texture, and guided by the unfolding of key events. Those classic principles, combined with a handy size and low price, have helped make America: A Narrative History one of the most popular and wellrespected textbooks in the field. This Eleventh Brief Edition of America features important changes designed to make the text more teachable and classroom-friendly. The Eleventh Brief Edition is fifteen percent shorter than the Full Edition, and is a more affordable option for students. The overarching theme of the new edition is the importance of immigration to the American experience. Since 1776, the United States has taken in more people from more nations than any other country in the world. By welcoming newcomers, America has enriched its economy, diversified its people and culture, and testified to the appeal of a democracy committed to equal opportunity and equal treatment. Writer Vivian Gornick, the daughter of Russian Jewish immigrants, cherished the ethnic mosaic of her childhood New York City neighborhood: “The ‘otherness’ of the Italians or the Irish or the Jews among us lent spice and interest, a sense of definition, an exciting edge to things that was openly feared but secretly welcomed.” At times, however, the nation’s Open Door policy has also generated tension, criticism, prejudice, and even violence. Those concerned about immigration, past and present, have complained about open borders and called into question the nation’s ability to serve as the world’s “melting pot.” The shifting attitudes and policies regarding immigration have testified to the continuing debate over the merits of newcomers. Immigration remains one of the nation’s most cherished yet contested values, and as such it deserves fresh emphasis in textbooks and classrooms. While an introductory textbook must necessarily focus on major political, constitutional, diplomatic, economic, and social changes, it is also essential to convey how ordinary people xv usahistorybrief11_ch00_fmvol2_i-xxxi.indd 15 17/10/18 4:48 PM xvi  Preface managed everyday concerns—housing, jobs, food, recreation, religion, and entertainment—and surmounted exceptional challenges—depressions, wars, and racial injustice. I have continued to enrich the political narrative by incorporating more social and cultural history into this new edition. The text has been updated to include the following key new discussions: • Chapter 1 “The Collision of Cultures” highlights President John F. Kennedy’s emphasis on the United States as “a nation of immigrants,” and revised assessments of Christopher Columbus’s roles as colonial governor, ship captain, and slave trader. • Chapter 2 “England’s Colonies” includes expanded coverage of the various factors that led Europeans to relocate to the American colonies, new discussion of the varied fates of British convicts and others who were sent involuntarily to America, the experience of indentured servants, and expanded focus on Chief Powhatan and his response to English colonists who were determined to “invade my people.” • Chapter 3 “Colonial Ways of Life” features fresh insights into nativism and xenophobic sentiment toward German immigrants in the American colonies, including anti-immigrant comments from Benjamin Franklin in Pennsylvania; and discussion of the plight of immigrant women who worked in Virginia’s textile factories. • Chapter 4 “From Colonies to States” includes new assessment of the small, but distinctive French immigration to North America before 1750; new focus on the massive surge in immigration and slave imports after the French and Indian War; and, new treatments of the first Revolutionary battles. • Chapter 5 “The American Revolution” features new discussion of the system of enslaved labor during the War of Independence, the discriminatory legal status of African Americans, and British characterizations of American colonies as the “land of the free and the land of the slave.” There is also a profile of Thomas Jeremiah, a South Carolina “boatman” whom colonial authorities executed after he alerted enslaved blacks that British soldiers were coming to “help the poor Negroes.” The chapter also includes a new photo depicting free black soldiers fighting in the Revolution. • Chapter 6 “Strengthening the New Nation” expands discussion of the delegates to the Constitutional Convention and their involvement with slavery, features debates over immigration in the new nation, offers new perspective on Alexander Hamilton’s development as an usahistorybrief11_ch00_fmvol2_i-xxxi.indd 16 17/10/18 4:48 PM Preface  xvii • • • • • • • • • immigrant to the United States, and includes new photos of naturalization in 1790. Chapter 7 “The Early Republic” includes expanded treatment of the Lewis and Clark expedition, of the strategic significance of the Louisiana Purchase, and the legacy of the War of 1812. Chapter 8 “The Emergence of a Market Economy” includes new discussions on anti-Catholic and anti-Irish sentiments during the first half of the nineteenth century, the changing dynamics among immigrants of different nationalities, and the challenges immigrant workers faced in forming unions. New photos that depict symbols of organized labor have been added. Chapter 9 “Nationalism and Sectionalism” features a revised profile of John Quincy Adams and fresh coverage of Henry Clay. Chapter 10 “The Jacksonian Era” includes expanded coverage of Andrew Jackson’s Indian Removal policy, the Deposit and Distribution Act, the Specie Circular, and the Eaton Affair. Chapter 11 “The South, Slavery, and King Cotton” highlights the changing dynamics between slave labor and immigrant labor in the Old South and new coverage of sexual violence upon female slaves in the New Orleans slave trade and other regions. Chapter 12 “Religion, Romanticism, and Reform” includes revised discussions of religious awakenings, Mormonism, and transcendentalism, with expanded focus on transcendentalist Henry David Thoreau and Christian revivalist Peter Cartwright. The chapter also features social developments in women’s rights and the transition from gradualism to abolitionism among those opposed to slavery. Chapter 13 “Western Expansion” includes a new biographical sketch of John A. Sutter, the Swiss settler who founded a colony of European emigrants in California and created a wilderness empire centered on the gold rush. There is also expanded content on Irish and German immigrants in the Saint Patrick’s Battalion in the Mexican army. The chapter also reveals the development of John C. Calhoun’s race-based ideology following the Texas Revolution and includes a new photograph of the Donner party. Chapter 14 “The Gathering Storm” features new discussion of the California gold rush’s impact on the Native American population, new biographical material on Presidents James Buchanan and Abraham Lincoln, and expanded coverage of the Lincoln-Douglas debates. Chapter 15 “The War of the Union” discusses the substantial immigrant participation in the Civil War, features a new biographical sketch and usahistorybrief11_ch00_fmvol2_i-xxxi.indd 17 17/10/18 4:48 PM xviii  Preface • • • • • • • • • photo of Private Lyons Wakeman—a young woman who disguised herself as a man in order to fight in the Union army. Chapter 16 “The Era of Reconstruction” explains changing immigration policy in the context of the Naturalization Act of 1870 and offers new treatments of Indian policies, Congressional Reconstruction, and the legacies of Reconstruction. Chapter 17 “Business and Labor in the Industrial Era” includes broader discussion of immigrant women, the contributions of inventors like Croatian immigrant Nikola Tesla, the relationship between immigration—especially Chinese immigration—and the railroad boom beginning in the 1860s. There is fuller coverage of immigrants and the settlement house movement, union organizers such as Eugene Debs, and textile mill and factory strikers. Chapter 18 “The New South and the New West” expands explanation of the spread of institutional racial segregation and the emergence of the southern tobacco industry after the Civil War. Chapter 19 “Political Stalemate and Rural Revolt” includes new coverage of the unemployed protesters who marched in Coxey’s Army protesting the recession of the late nineteenth century. Chapter 20 “Seizing an American Empire” includes expanded content and a new photo regarding Japanese immigration to the United States. Chapter 21 “The Progressive Era” features increased discussion of the social gospel movement and the women’s suffrage movement, new biographical material on Presidents Taft, Roosevelt, and Wilson, and expanded focus on the racial biases of the Wilson administration. Chapter 22 “America and the Great War” includes expanded coverage of immigrants, including Italian American Tony Monanco, who fought in World War I; new coverage of Woodrow Wilson’s prosecution of immigrants who spread the poison of disloyalty during the war; nativism’s ties to racism and eugenics; and increased discussion of the Palmer raids. Chapter 23 “A Clash of Cultures” includes new discussion of flappers, the sexual revolution, and the new woman; revised treatments of Albert Einstein, scientific developments, and the impact of the radio; and, fresh insights into Ernest Hemingway and the “Lost Generation.” Chapter 24 “The Reactionary Twenties” expands discussion of reactionary conservatism and restrictive immigration policies; extends content on the revival of the Ku Klux Klan, prohibition, racial progressivism, and President Herbert Hoover’s financial and social policies; and adds new coverage of the Johnson-Reed Act. usahistorybrief11_ch00_fmvol2_i-xxxi.indd 18 17/10/18 4:48 PM Preface  xix • Chapter 25 “The New Deal” features expanded coverage of the New Deal’s impact on women and Native Americans; there is new material on President Franklin Delano Roosevelt’s relationship with his wife Eleanor Roosevelt. • Chapter 26 “The Second World War” includes expanded coverage of social and racial prejudice against African Americans and Japanese Americans; features a new discussion of army enlistment after the attack on Pearl Harbor; and a new set piece on the Battle of the Bulge. • Chapter 27 “The Cold War and the Fair Deal” includes discussion of the Immigration and Nationality (McCarran-Walter) Act of 1952 within the contexts of the Red Scare and McCarthyism. • Chapter 28 “America in the Fifties” highlights the emergence of a “car culture,” expanded discussion of the communist politics of Cuba, and bolstered coverage regarding Elizabeth Eckford, the student who attempted to enter Little Rock High School in Arkansas after the desegregation of public schools. • Chapter 29 “A New Frontier and a Great Society” includes fresh coverage of the Immigration and Nationality...
View Full Document

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture