Unformatted text preview: AMERICA usahistorybrief11_ch00_fmvol2_i-xxxi.indd 1 17/10/18 4:48 PM usahistorybrief11_ch00_fmvol2_i-xxxi.indd 2 17/10/18 4:48 PM • b r ie f e l e ve nth e dition
volu m e 2 AMERICA
A Narrative History
David Emory Shi n W. W. NORTON & COMPANY, INC.
New York • London usahistorybrief11_ch00_fmvol2_i-xxxi.indd 3 17/10/18 4:48 PM Copyright © 2019, 2016, 2013, 2010, 2007, 2004, 1999, 1996, 1992, 1988, 1984
by W. W. Norton & Company, Inc.
All rights reserved
Printed in Canada
Editor: Jon Durbin
Associate Managing Editor: Melissa Atkin
Editorial Assistant: Lily Gellman
Managing Editor, College: Marian Johnson
Managing Editor, College Digital Media: Kim Yi
Production Managers: Ashley Horna and Benjamin Reynolds
Media Editor: Carson Russell
Media Project Editor: Rachel Mayer
Media Associate Editor: Sarah Rose Aquilina
Media Editorial Assistant: Alexandra Malakhoff
Marketing Manager, History: Sarah England Bartley
Design Director: Hope Goodell-Miller
Photo Editor: Travis Carr
Composition: SixRedMarbles / Jouve – Brattleboro, VT
Cover design: Tiani Kennedy
Cover image: New York, East Side, 1924 (oil on canvas), Grabach, John R. (1886–
1981) / Private Collection / Photo © Christie’s Images / Bridgeman Images.
Permission to use copyrighted material is included on page A157.
The Library of Congress has cataloged the Full, One-Volume, Edition as
Names: Shi, David Emory, author.
Title: America : a narrative history / David Emory Shi.
Description: Eleventh edition. | New York : W. W. Norton & Company, 2019. |
Includes bibliographical references and index.
Identifiers: LCCN 2018046039 | ISBN 9780393689693 (hardcover : alk. paper)
Subjects: LCSH: United States—History—Textbooks.
Classification: LCC E178.1 .T55 2019 | DDC 973—dc23 LC record available at
ISBN this edition: 978-0-393-66897-1
W. W. Norton & Company, Inc., 500 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY 10110-0017
W. W. Norton & Company Ltd., 15 Carlisle Street, London W1D 3BS
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 usahistorybrief11_ch00_fmvol2_i-xxxi.indd 4 17/10/18 4:48 PM FOR
GEORGE B. TINDALL (1921–2006)
HISTORIAN, COLLEAGUE, FRIEND usahistorybrief11_ch00_fmvol2_i-xxxi.indd 5 17/10/18 4:48 PM usahistorybrief11_ch00_fmvol2_i-xxxi.indd 6 17/10/18 4:48 PM DAVID EMORY SHI is a professor of history and the
president emeritus of Furman University. He also
taught for seventeen years at Davidson College,
where he chaired the history department, served as
the Frontis Johnson Professor of History, and won the
Distinguished Teaching Award. He is the author of
several books on American cultural history, including
the award-winning The Simple Life: Plain Living and
High Thinking in American Culture, Facing Facts:
Realism in American Thought and Culture, 1850–1920,
and The Bell Tower and Beyond: Reflections on
Learning and Living. usahistorybrief11_ch00_fmvol2_i-xxxi.indd 7 17/10/18 4:48 PM usahistorybrief11_ch00_fmvol2_i-xxxi.indd 8 17/10/18 4:48 PM CONTENTS
List of Maps • xiii
Preface • xv
Acknowledgments • xxv 16 The Era of Reconstruction, 1865–1877 638
The War’s Aftermath in the South 640 • Debates over Political
Reconstruction 642 • Black Society under Reconstruction 655 • The Grant
Administration 664 • Reconstruction’s Significance 678 PART FIVE GROWING PAINS 683
Business and Labor in the Industrial Era,
1860–1900 686 Industrial and Agricultural Growth 688 • The Rise of Big Business 699 •
The Alliance of Business and Politics 706 • An Industrial Society 708 18
T he New South and the New West,
1865–1900 730 The Myth of the New South 732 • The Failings of the New South 734 • Race
Relations during the 1890s 737 • The Settling of the New West 746 • Life in
the New West 752 • The Fate of Western Indians 758 • The End of the
ix usahistorybrief11_ch00_fmvol2_i-xxxi.indd 9 17/10/18 4:48 PM x Contents 19
Political Stalemate and Rural Revolt,
1865–1900 772 Urban America 773 • The New Immigration 776 • Cultural Life 780 • Gilded
Age Politics 787 • Hayes and Civil Service Reform 791 • Farmers and the
“Money Problem” 800 PART SIX MODERN AMERICA 815
20 Seizing an American Empire, 1865–1913 818
Toward the New Imperialism 820 • Expansion in the Pacific 821 •
The Spanish-American War (The War of 1898) 824 • Consequences of
Victory 830 • Roosevelt’s “Big-Stick” Diplomacy 838 21 The Progressive Era, 1890–1920 850
The Progressive Impulse 852 • The Sources of Progressivism 853 •
Progressives’ Aims and Achievements 861 • Progressivism under Roosevelt and
Taft 868 • Woodrow Wilson: A Progressive Southerner 879 22 America and the Great War, 1914–1920 894
An Uneasy Neutrality 896 • Mobilizing a Nation 907 • The American Role in
the War 914 • The Politics of Peace 922 • Stumbling from War to Peace 931 23 A Clash of Cultures, 1920–1929 940
The Nation in 1920 943 • The “Jazz Age” 951 • The Modernist Revolt 963 24 The Reactionary Twenties 972
Reactionary Conservatism and Immigration Restriction 974 • A Republican
Resurgence 985 • The Rise of Herbert Hoover 998 • 1929—A Turning
Point 1002 • The Onset of the Great Depression 1002 • The Human Toll
of the Depression 1006 • From Hooverism to the New Deal 1011 usahistorybrief11_ch00_fmvol2_i-xxxi.indd 10 17/10/18 4:48 PM Contents xi 25 The New Deal, 1933–1939 1018
Roosevelt’s New Deal 1020 • The New Deal under Fire 1031 •
The Second New Deal 1043 26 The Second World War, 1933–1945 1054
The Rise of Fascism in Europe 1056 • From Isolationism to Intervention 1059 •
Arsenal of Democracy 1073 • The Allied Drive toward Berlin 1082 • The
Pacific War 1095 • A New Age Is Born 1101 PART SEVEN THE AMERICAN AGE 1107
T he Cold War and the Fair Deal,
1945–1952 1110 Truman and the Cold War 1112 • The Containment Policy 1115 • Expanding
the New Deal 1122 • The Cold War Heats Up 1133 • Another Red Scare 1140 28 America in the Fifties 1148
Moderate Republicanism 1150 • A People of Plenty 1155 • Cracks in the
Picture Window 1165 • The Civil Rights Movement 1169 • Foreign Policy in
the Fifties 1177 29
A New Frontier and a Great Society,
1960–1968 1190 The New Frontier 1192 • Civil Rights Triumphant 1204 • The Great
Society 1217 • The Tragedy of Vietnam 1227 • The Turmoil of the Sixties 1233 30 Rebellion and Reaction, 1960s and 1970s 1240
“Forever Young”: The Youth Revolt 1242 • Social Activism Spreads 1251 •
Nixon and the Revival of Conservatism 1262 • “Peace with Honor”: Ending the
Vietnam War 1270 • The Nixon Doctrine and a Thawing Cold War 1277 •
Watergate 1281 usahistorybrief11_ch00_fmvol2_i-xxxi.indd 11 17/10/18 4:48 PM xii Contents 31 Conservative Revival, 1977–1990 1292
The Carter Presidency 1294 • The Rise of Ronald Reagan 1300 • The Reagan
Revolution 1304 • An Anti-Soviet Foreign Policy 1310 • The Changing
Economic and Social Landscape 1316 • The Presidency of George H. W.
Bush 1320 32
1993–Present 1332 America’s Changing Population 1334 • The Clinton Presidency (1993–
2001) 1335 • A Chaotic Start to a New Century 1345 • Second-Term
Blues 1355 • A Historic New Presidency 1358 • A Populist
President 1385 • The 100-Day Mark 1392 Glossary A1
Further Readings A133
Index A159 usahistorybrief11_ch00_fmvol2_i-xxxi.indd 12 17/10/18 4:48 PM MAPS
Reconstruction, 1865–1877 Transcontinental Railroad Lines, 1880s Sharecropping and Tenancy, 1880–1900 The New West Indian Wars The Emergence of Large Cities, 1880 The Emergence of Large Cities, 1920 The Election of 1896 U.S. Interests in the Pacific U.S. Interests in the Caribbean Women’s Suffrage, 1869–1914 The Election of 1912 The Great War in Europe, 1914 The Great War, the Western Front, 1918 Europe after the Treaty of Versailles, 1918 Aggression in Europe, 1935–1939 Japanese Expansion before the Attack on Pearl Harbor World War II in Europe and Africa, 1942–1945 World War II in the Pacific, 1942–1945 The Occupation of Germany and Austria The Election of 1948 The Korean War, 1950 and 1950–1953 The Election of 1952 Postwar Alliances: The Far East Postwar Alliances: Europe, North Africa, the Middle East The Election of 1960 Vietnam, 1966 The Election of 1968 661
1236 xiii usahistorybrief11_ch00_fmvol2_i-xxxi.indd 13 17/10/18 4:48 PM xiv Maps The Election of 1980 The Election of 1988 The Election of 2000 The Election of 2004 The Election of 2008 The Election of 2016 usahistorybrief11_ch00_fmvol2_i-xxxi.indd 14 1305
1385 17/10/18 4:48 PM PREFACE T his Eleventh Edition of America: A Narrative History Brief E
improves upon a textbook celebrated for its compelling narrative
history of the American experience. Over the past thirty years,
I have sought to write an engaging book centered on political and
economic developments animated by colorful characters, informed by balanced analysis and social texture, and guided by the unfolding of key events.
Those classic principles, combined with a handy size and low price, have
helped make America: A Narrative History one of the most popular and wellrespected textbooks in the field.
This Eleventh Brief Edition of America features important changes designed
to make the text more teachable and classroom-friendly. The Eleventh Brief
Edition is fifteen percent shorter than the Full Edition, and is a more affordable
option for students. The overarching theme of the new edition is the importance
of immigration to the American experience. Since 1776, the United States has
taken in more people from more nations than any other country in the world. By
welcoming newcomers, America has enriched its economy, diversified its people
and culture, and testified to the appeal of a democracy committed to equal
opportunity and equal treatment. Writer Vivian Gornick, the daughter of Russian
Jewish immigrants, cherished the ethnic mosaic of her childhood New York City
neighborhood: “The ‘otherness’ of the Italians or the Irish or the Jews among us
lent spice and interest, a sense of definition, an exciting edge to things that was
openly feared but secretly welcomed.” At times, however, the nation’s Open Door
policy has also generated tension, criticism, prejudice, and even violence. Those
concerned about immigration, past and present, have complained about open
borders and called into question the nation’s ability to serve as the world’s
“melting pot.” The shifting attitudes and policies regarding immigration have
testified to the continuing debate over the merits of newcomers. Immigration
remains one of the nation’s most cherished yet contested values, and as such it
deserves fresh emphasis in textbooks and classrooms. While an introductory
textbook must necessarily focus on major political, constitutional, diplomatic,
economic, and social changes, it is also essential to convey how ordinary people
xv usahistorybrief11_ch00_fmvol2_i-xxxi.indd 15 17/10/18 4:48 PM xvi Preface managed everyday concerns—housing, jobs, food, recreation, religion, and
entertainment—and surmounted exceptional challenges—depressions, wars,
and racial injustice.
I have continued to enrich the political narrative by incorporating more
social and cultural history into this new edition. The text has been updated to
include the following key new discussions:
• Chapter 1 “The Collision of Cultures” highlights President John F.
Kennedy’s emphasis on the United States as “a nation of immigrants,” and
revised assessments of Christopher Columbus’s roles as colonial governor,
ship captain, and slave trader.
• Chapter 2 “England’s Colonies” includes expanded coverage of the
various factors that led Europeans to relocate to the American colonies,
new discussion of the varied fates of British convicts and others who were
sent involuntarily to America, the experience of indentured servants, and
expanded focus on Chief Powhatan and his response to English colonists
who were determined to “invade my people.”
• Chapter 3 “Colonial Ways of Life” features fresh insights into nativism
and xenophobic sentiment toward German immigrants in the American
colonies, including anti-immigrant comments from Benjamin Franklin in
Pennsylvania; and discussion of the plight of immigrant women who
worked in Virginia’s textile factories.
• Chapter 4 “From Colonies to States” includes new assessment of the
small, but distinctive French immigration to North America before 1750;
new focus on the massive surge in immigration and slave imports after
the French and Indian War; and, new treatments of the first
• Chapter 5 “The American Revolution” features new discussion of the
system of enslaved labor during the War of Independence, the
discriminatory legal status of African Americans, and British
characterizations of American colonies as the “land of the free and the
land of the slave.” There is also a profile of Thomas Jeremiah, a South
Carolina “boatman” whom colonial authorities executed after he alerted
enslaved blacks that British soldiers were coming to “help the poor
Negroes.” The chapter also includes a new photo depicting free black
soldiers fighting in the Revolution.
• Chapter 6 “Strengthening the New Nation” expands discussion of the
delegates to the Constitutional Convention and their involvement
with slavery, features debates over immigration in the new nation,
offers new perspective on Alexander Hamilton’s development as an usahistorybrief11_ch00_fmvol2_i-xxxi.indd 16 17/10/18 4:48 PM Preface xvii • • • • • • • • • immigrant to the United States, and includes new photos of
naturalization in 1790.
Chapter 7 “The Early Republic” includes expanded treatment of the Lewis
and Clark expedition, of the strategic significance of the Louisiana
Purchase, and the legacy of the War of 1812.
Chapter 8 “The Emergence of a Market Economy” includes new
discussions on anti-Catholic and anti-Irish sentiments during the first
half of the nineteenth century, the changing dynamics among immigrants
of different nationalities, and the challenges immigrant workers faced in
forming unions. New photos that depict symbols of organized labor have
Chapter 9 “Nationalism and Sectionalism” features a revised profile of
John Quincy Adams and fresh coverage of Henry Clay.
Chapter 10 “The Jacksonian Era” includes expanded coverage of Andrew
Jackson’s Indian Removal policy, the Deposit and Distribution Act, the
Specie Circular, and the Eaton Affair.
Chapter 11 “The South, Slavery, and King Cotton” highlights the
changing dynamics between slave labor and immigrant labor in the
Old South and new coverage of sexual violence upon female slaves in
the New Orleans slave trade and other regions.
Chapter 12 “Religion, Romanticism, and Reform” includes revised
discussions of religious awakenings, Mormonism, and transcendentalism,
with expanded focus on transcendentalist Henry David Thoreau and
Christian revivalist Peter Cartwright. The chapter also features social
developments in women’s rights and the transition from gradualism to
abolitionism among those opposed to slavery.
Chapter 13 “Western Expansion” includes a new biographical sketch of
John A. Sutter, the Swiss settler who founded a colony of European
emigrants in California and created a wilderness empire centered on the
gold rush. There is also expanded content on Irish and German
immigrants in the Saint Patrick’s Battalion in the Mexican army. The
chapter also reveals the development of John C. Calhoun’s race-based
ideology following the Texas Revolution and includes a new photograph
of the Donner party.
Chapter 14 “The Gathering Storm” features new discussion of the
California gold rush’s impact on the Native American population, new
biographical material on Presidents James Buchanan and Abraham
Lincoln, and expanded coverage of the Lincoln-Douglas debates.
Chapter 15 “The War of the Union” discusses the substantial immigrant
participation in the Civil War, features a new biographical sketch and usahistorybrief11_ch00_fmvol2_i-xxxi.indd 17 17/10/18 4:48 PM xviii Preface • • • • • • • • • photo of Private Lyons Wakeman—a young woman who disguised herself
as a man in order to fight in the Union army.
Chapter 16 “The Era of Reconstruction” explains changing immigration
policy in the context of the Naturalization Act of 1870 and offers new
treatments of Indian policies, Congressional Reconstruction, and the
legacies of Reconstruction.
Chapter 17 “Business and Labor in the Industrial Era” includes broader
discussion of immigrant women, the contributions of inventors like
Croatian immigrant Nikola Tesla, the relationship between
immigration—especially Chinese immigration—and the railroad boom
beginning in the 1860s. There is fuller coverage of immigrants and the
settlement house movement, union organizers such as Eugene Debs, and
textile mill and factory strikers.
Chapter 18 “The New South and the New West” expands explanation of
the spread of institutional racial segregation and the emergence of the
southern tobacco industry after the Civil War.
Chapter 19 “Political Stalemate and Rural Revolt” includes new coverage
of the unemployed protesters who marched in Coxey’s Army protesting
the recession of the late nineteenth century.
Chapter 20 “Seizing an American Empire” includes expanded content and
a new photo regarding Japanese immigration to the United States.
Chapter 21 “The Progressive Era” features increased discussion of the
social gospel movement and the women’s suffrage movement, new
biographical material on Presidents Taft, Roosevelt, and Wilson, and
expanded focus on the racial biases of the Wilson administration.
Chapter 22 “America and the Great War” includes expanded coverage of
immigrants, including Italian American Tony Monanco, who fought in
World War I; new coverage of Woodrow Wilson’s prosecution of
immigrants who spread the poison of disloyalty during the war; nativism’s
ties to racism and eugenics; and increased discussion of the Palmer raids.
Chapter 23 “A Clash of Cultures” includes new discussion of flappers, the
sexual revolution, and the new woman; revised treatments of Albert
Einstein, scientific developments, and the impact of the radio; and, fresh
insights into Ernest Hemingway and the “Lost Generation.”
Chapter 24 “The Reactionary Twenties” expands discussion of
reactionary conservatism and restrictive immigration policies; extends
content on the revival of the Ku Klux Klan, prohibition, racial
progressivism, and President Herbert Hoover’s financial and social
policies; and adds new coverage of the Johnson-Reed Act. usahistorybrief11_ch00_fmvol2_i-xxxi.indd 18 17/10/18 4:48 PM Preface xix • Chapter 25 “The New Deal” features expanded coverage of the New Deal’s
impact on women and Native Americans; there is new material on
President Franklin Delano Roosevelt’s relationship with his wife Eleanor
• Chapter 26 “The Second World War” includes expanded coverage of
social and racial prejudice against African Americans and Japanese
Americans; features a new discussion of army enlistment after the attack
on Pearl Harbor; and a new set piece on the Battle of the Bulge.
• Chapter 27 “The Cold War and the Fair Deal” includes discussion of the
Immigration and Nationality (McCarran-Walter) Act of 1952 within the
contexts of the Red Scare and McCarthyism.
• Chapter 28 “America in the Fifties” highlights the emergence of a “car
culture,” expanded discussion of the communist politics of Cuba, and
bolstered coverage regarding Elizabeth Eckford, the student who
attempted to enter Little Rock High School in Arkansas after the
desegregation of public schools.
• Chapter 29 “A New Frontier and a Great Society” includes fresh coverage
of the Immigration and Nationality...
View Full Document