hw_soln_chap2

hw_soln_chap2 - Solutions for Chapter 2 1 Find Data...

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Solutions for Chapter 2 1. Find: Number of valence electrons in Group IIIB and Group VB elements. Data: Periodic Table in Appendix A. Solution: By definition and/or by examination of Appendix B, Group IIIB elements contain 3 valence electrons while Group VB elements contain 5 valence electrons. 2. Find: The electron configuration of the element that comes next in the series Si, Ge? Data: Periodic Table in Appendix A. Solution: Examination of the Periodic Table shows that Si and Ge are both Group IVB elements. As shown in Example Problem 2.2-1, have a valence electron configuration of the form xs 2 xp 2 when x=3 for Si and x=4 for Ge. The next group IVB element in the series is Sn with an electron configuration (from the Periodic Table) of [1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 3d 1O 4s 2 4p 6 4d 1O ] 5s 2 5p 2 . Note that the valence electron configuration for Sn is also of the form xs 2 xp 2 with x=5. Comments: The similarity of their valence electron configurations suggests that Sn should display properties similar to those of Si and Ge. This is true over a limited temperature range but there are other factors (to be discussed in the next chapter) that explain why Sn also has some properties that differ from those of the other two elements. 3. Find: Should Ca and Zn exhibit similar properties? Data: Periodic Table in Appendix A. Solution: Examination of the Periodic Table shows that Ca has the electron configuration [1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 4s 2 ] while Zn has configuration [1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 3d 10 ] 4s 2 . Since both elements have two valence electrons (4s 2 ) we should expect these elements to display some similar properties. Comments: Although Zn and Ca have similar valence electron configurations, they have other structural differences that result in differences in properties. 4. Find: Suggest some consequences of electron energies not being quantized. Solution: Although there are many possible answers to this question, one of the more important results might be a breakdown in the periodic arrangement of the elements. The Periodic Table owes its existence to the quantization of energy. If quantization of energy did not exist, we would lose the ability to understand and predict properties based on valence electron configuration. 5. Find: How many electrons, protons, and neutrons are in Cu? Data: From Appendix A, the atomic number of Cu is 29 and the atomic mass is 63.54 g/mole. Solution: Cu has 29 electrons and 29 protons, each proton weighing about 1 g/mole. The balance of the atomic mass is from neutrons. Comment: Elements can have different masses, from having different numbers of neutrons. They are called isotopes. 6. Find: What is the electronic structure of C? Data:
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This note was uploaded on 08/31/2010 for the course MSE 2001 taught by Professor Tannebaum during the Summer '08 term at Georgia Tech.

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hw_soln_chap2 - Solutions for Chapter 2 1 Find Data...

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