Part 1. MMW2 Themes
Axial Ages Sages + Philosophies
--> Crises as a result of conflict.
--> Conflict that arises from geography
--> Advances in technology
--> Metallurgy (conflict to kill more people)
--> Population growth (urbanization and sedentary life)
-> Religions and philosophies
--> Daoism Confucianism
--> Hinduism, Buddhism,
--> Hinduism > brahmanisms > conduct fortunes > sacrifices = elaboration, lost meaning
> look for replacements
(Gender relationship-patriarchal societies, social stratification (caste system),
--> Persian wars bring the best out of the Greeks
--> Peloponnesian Wars - Athens becomes a hegemon, democratic system breaks down.
persuasive wise influence (ex. Sicily) + plague + loss of allied support. AKA, brings out the
worst of the Greeks.
individual's relationship with the state
relationship with God
Part 1. Key Names and Terms
ndus and Vedic Culture
Indus Valley -
Early Indian societies were discovered here. Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa.
Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro
Cities, layout identical, sewage, died of
Cities of the ancient Indus/Harappan civilization (Around the 23rd (?) -
18th century BCE), homogeneous and massive in nature. Despite being separated by over 1000
miles, Harappa in the north featured the same elements as MD in the South. The key features of
these cities were fortification, city planning, sewage system, water system. Not much is known
about the civilization in general, due to the inability to decipher writing and poor preservation of
archaeological remains (rise of water table) Cities later collapsed, abandoned by residents,
caused by either ecological mismanagement or outside invasion (unlikely).
Stamped Seals -
drawings of animals, sexual potency
Small seals (square stamps) Function
unknown. Found at the sites of Mohenjo-Daro and Harrappa. There is one of a shaman sitting in
a yogic pose and is believed to be an early predecessor of Shiva (the 4 animals and the bull,
Shiva's animal that is associated with him). These seals often contained drawings of animals
known for their sexual potency, such as elephants and hippos.
Migration + filtered and absorbed natives into, horsedrawn carriage, iron.
(Aryan - "noble people") The Aryans entered/migrated to India around the 18th - 15th centuries.