Chang MMW2 Final Study Guide

Chang MMW2 Final Study Guide - Part 1 MMW2 Themes Axial...

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Part 1. MMW2 Themes Axial Ages Sages + Philosophies --> Crises as a result of conflict. --> Conflict that arises from geography --> Advances in technology --> Metallurgy (conflict to kill more people) --> Population growth (urbanization and sedentary life) -> Religions and philosophies --> Daoism Confucianism --> Hinduism, Buddhism, --> Hinduism > brahmanisms > conduct fortunes > sacrifices = elaboration, lost meaning > look for replacements Social Structure (Gender relationship-patriarchal societies, social stratification (caste system), Economy (trade) --> Persian wars bring the best out of the Greeks --> Peloponnesian Wars - Athens becomes a hegemon, democratic system breaks down. persuasive wise influence (ex. Sicily) + plague + loss of allied support. AKA, brings out the worst of the Greeks. Individualism (Greece- individual's relationship with the state and Israel- individual's relationship with God ) Part 1. Key Names and Terms I ndus and Vedic Culture Indus Valley - Early Indian societies were discovered here. Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa. Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro : Cities, layout identical, sewage, died of deforestation/invasion Cities of the ancient Indus/Harappan civilization (Around the 23rd (?) - 18th century BCE), homogeneous and massive in nature. Despite being separated by over 1000 miles, Harappa in the north featured the same elements as MD in the South. The key features of these cities were fortification, city planning, sewage system, water system. Not much is known about the civilization in general, due to the inability to decipher writing and poor preservation of archaeological remains (rise of water table) Cities later collapsed, abandoned by residents, caused by either ecological mismanagement or outside invasion (unlikely). Stamped Seals - drawings of animals, sexual potency Small seals (square stamps) Function unknown. Found at the sites of Mohenjo-Daro and Harrappa. There is one of a shaman sitting in a yogic pose and is believed to be an early predecessor of Shiva (the 4 animals and the bull, Shiva's animal that is associated with him). These seals often contained drawings of animals known for their sexual potency, such as elephants and hippos. Aryan Influx - Migration + filtered and absorbed natives into, horsedrawn carriage, iron. (Aryan - "noble people") The Aryans entered/migrated to India around the 18th - 15th centuries.
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Came from the Caucausus Mountain range between the Mediterranean and Black sea. Aryan words and deities were prevalent in Greek (Zeus), Roman (Jupiter), Indian Pantheons. Primarly adopted pastoral lifestyle. Was a warrior style civilization. Marked by their war-chariots (wheels from Mesopotamia) and superior weaponry (advances in metellugry). Dravidians -
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Chang MMW2 Final Study Guide - Part 1 MMW2 Themes Axial...

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