14 - AP Chemistry Lab Rates of Reaction Brockport High...

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AP Chemistry Lab Brockport High School NY USA Rates of Reaction Mr Keefer Introduction Whenever two chemicals react, the reacting molecules or ions must collide in order for the reaction to take place. If the reactants are forced to collide more frequently, then the reaction should be faster. Two factors which can influence the frequency of collision are temperature and concentration. Increasing the temperature of the reactants causes them to move faster and thus collide more frequently. If the concentration of a reactants are increased, then there are more opportunities for collisions and the reaction rate increases. Some reactions have been measured to occur in extremely short periods of time, such as femtoseconds (10 -15 ) and attoseconds (10 -18 ). The purpose of this experiment is to measure the effect of temperature and concentration on the rate of a specific reaction, the formation of carbon dioxide from an Alka-Seltzer ® tablet plopped into water. Alka-Seltzer ® tablets contain aspirin, sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO 3 ) and citric acid. Carbonate (Na 2 CO 3 ) and bicarbonate compounds react with acids to form carbon dioxide. HCO 3 - + H + H 2 O (l) + CO 2(g) and CO 3 2- + 2 H + H 2 O (l) + CO 2(g) In an Alka-Seltzer ® tablet the bicarbonate and acid are solids and thus the H + and CO 3 2- ions are not free to move, collide and react. When plopped into water, the citric acid and sodium bicarbonate dissolve,
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14 - AP Chemistry Lab Rates of Reaction Brockport High...

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