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30 - Schrödinger Hybridization occurs when low energy...

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1 AP Chemistry Lab Brockport High School NY USA Molecular Geometry Mr Keefer Introduction Lewis structures can be used to predict molecular and ionic geometries, as well as polarity. Generally, atoms have eight electrons in their outer shell and is known as the octet rule. In addition, valence electrons around atoms (bonding pairs) or present in electron domains (lone pairs) can be used to predict the overall geometry of a molecule because electrons repel each other. This method is termed valence-shell electron-pair repulsion (VSEPR) theory. Each electron pair occupies as much space around the nucleus and inner electron shells of the atom as it can, and excludes other electrons from occupying the same space, a consequence of the Pauli Exclusion Principle. In addition to VSEPR theory, orbital hybridization can be used to predict overall geometry (includes atoms and electron domains) as well as molecular geometry . As discussed in many chemistry books, blending of s, p, d, and f orbitals occurs based on electron wave functions first defined by Irwin
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Unformatted text preview: Schrödinger. Hybridization occurs when low energy electrons are promoted to higher energy levels, resulting in a blended orbital of the participating orbitals (i.e., sp, sp 2 , sp 3 , sp 3 d, sp 3 d 2 ). In this lab, you will construct molecules from Lewis structures, and correlate molecular shapes with orbital hybridizations. Your textbook is an excellent reference source and should be consulted for information on Lewis structures. Materials: molecular models kits, textbooks Methods and Analysis Construct each of the following molecular species, then sketch and label on unlined paper: 1. Lewis structure 2. Predicted overall geometry and molecular geometry 3. Predicted angles 4. AB n E m nomenclature 5. Orbital hybridization 6. Polarity (yes or no) 7. Resonance (yes or no) BeCl 2 BF 3 CH 4 PCl 5 SF 6 NH 3 HF SO 2 SO 4 2-CO 2 CCl 4 NO 2 NO 3-HCN NH 4 + PO 4 3-XeF 4 XeF 2 H 2 O SF 4 SO 3 ClO 3-BrF 5...
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