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Unformatted text preview: CHAPTER 7 - Cash and Receivables ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS 1. Cash normally consists of coins and currency on hand, bank deposits, and various kinds of orders for cash such as bank checks, money orders, travelers’ checks, demand bills of exchange, bank drafts, and cashiers’ checks. Balances on deposit in banks which are subject to immediate withdrawal are properly included in cash. Money market funds that provide checking account privileges may be classified as cash. There is some question as to whether deposits not subject to immediate withdrawal are properly included in cash or whether they should be set out separately. Savings accounts, time certificates of deposit, and time deposits fall in this latter category. Unless restrictions on these kinds of deposits are such that they cannot be converted (withdrawn) within one year or the operating cycle of the entity, whichever is longer, they are properly classified as current assets. At the same time, they may well be presented separately from other cash and the restrictions as to convertibility reported. 11. Because estimation of the allowance requires judgment, management could either over-estimate or under- estimate the amount of uncollectible accounts depending on whether a higher or lower earnings number is desired. For example, Sun Trust bank (referred to in the chapter) was having a very profitable year. By over- estimating the amount of bad debts, Sun Trust could record a higher allowance and expense, thereby reducing income in the current year. In a subsequent year, when earnings are low, they could under-estimate the allowance, record less expense and get a boost to earnings. 12. The receivable due from Bernstein Company should be written off to an appropriately named loss account and reported in the income statement as part of income from operations. Note that the profession specifically excludes write-offs of receivables from being extraordinary. In this case, classification as an unusual item would seem appropriate. The loss may properly be reduced by the portion of the allowance for doubtful accounts at the end of the preceding year that was allocable to the Bernstein Company account. Estimates for doubtful accounts are based on a firm’s prior bad debt experience with due consideration given to changes in credit policy and forecasted general or industry business conditions. The purpose of the allowance method is to anticipate only that amount of bad debt expense which can be reasonably forecasted in the normal course of events; it is not intended to anticipate bad debt losses which are abnormal and nonrecurring in nature. 15. Imputed interest is the interest ascribed or attributed to a situation or circumstance which is void of a stated or otherwise appropriate interest factor. Imputed interest is the result of a process of interest rate estimation called imputation. An interest rate is imputed for notes receivable when (1) no interest rate is stated for the transaction, or (2) the stated interest rate is unreasonable, or (3) the stated face amount of the note is materially different from...
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This note was uploaded on 09/01/2010 for the course ACT ACT3391 taught by Professor R.turpin during the Spring '10 term at Troy.
- Spring '10