CHAPTER 12 RECAP - Chapter Recaps & Study Guide Chapter 12:...

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Chapter Recaps & Study Guide Chapter 12: The Motion Picture Industry The development of motion pictures o In Europe, motions pictures had their origins in the magic lantern performances of magicians and the understanding of the phenomenon known as persistence of vision o In the U.S., early experiments with photographic images to simulate motion suggested the possibility of motion pictures o Edison used the flexible photographic film invented by Eastman to develop a motion picture camera in 1889, but Edison conceptualized the commercial value of the invention as an arcade entertainment called a kinetoscope o In France, the Lumiere brothers developed a projection system that allowed for theatrical presentation of moving pictures o Edison bought the rights to a projector and developed the Edison Vitascope, debuted in New York in 1896 o Films emerged as a mass medium with the development of theatrical presentations in nickelodeons and with the development of mass audiences that included newly arrived immigrants o Edison and others established the Motion Pictures Patents Company (MPPC) as a trust intended to control the new industry by means of patents and licensing the use of equipment o Competitors ignored the trust and set-up what would become the major film studios in Hollywood; by 1918, U.S. movie studios controlled 80 percent of the world film market The Hollywood studio system o Almost immediately, the Hollywood studios were organized along the lines of vertical integration, combining production, distribution, and exhibition o The star system was an integral part of the studio system, as was the division of the studio into A and B units; B films were low budget projects and made quickly o Series pictures were movies that featured the same characters and sets across a number of films, lowering cost o The studios forced independent exhibitors to take B movies if they wanted to get the A movies; this was called block booking o The talkies appeared in the late 1920s; the first sound film was The Jazz Singer (1927) o The U.S. Supreme Court ruled in 1919 that films were entertainment and therefore not protected by the First Amendment (this ruling would eventually be overturned by the Court in 1952) o The studios set-up the Motion Picture and Distributions Association in 1922 to govern content of films; Will Hays headed the organization, and it was called the Hays Office; it set the model for other media self-regulation o The Justice Department’s 1948 case against Paramount resulted in the break-up of the studio system and Hollywood’s divesture of exhibition from the vertically integrated industry; the
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This note was uploaded on 09/01/2010 for the course COMM 100 taught by Professor %3f during the Spring '08 term at Penn State.

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CHAPTER 12 RECAP - Chapter Recaps & Study Guide Chapter 12:...

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