02_Hardware_Software - LECTURE 2: HARDWARE AND SOFTWARE CSI...

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Unformatted text preview: LECTURE 2: HARDWARE AND SOFTWARE CSI 1306 F Computing Concepts for Business Computers Computers are automatic, electronic machines that accept data & instructions from a user (INPUT) store the data & instructions (STORAGE) manipulate the data according to the instructions (PROCESSING) store &/or output the results to the user (OUTPUT) A computer system is composed of hardware and software Hardware components are the physical, tangible pieces that we can see and touch (circuitry of the computer) Software Program a sequence of instructions to accomplish a result a computer processes information under the direction of a program Data information to be processed by a program Example Data : for each employee, the employee number, hours worked & hourly pay rate Program : instructions on how to process the data to produce pay cheques, payroll register, etc. Hardware Analog vs. Digital Signals Two types of signals: digital and analog. Analog technology The signal is directly analogous to the information it represents The signal is continuous and in direct proportion to the source of the information  In a thermometer, mercury rises in direct proportion to the temperature  In an amplifier or telephone, the electronic voltage signal varies in direct proportion to the frequency and amplitude of the sound waves it represents Analog vs. Digital Signals Digital technology The signal is discrete The information is broken down into pieces, and each piece is represented separately Digital information is measured many times per second (the sampling rate) and each measurement is represented as a number How music is stored on a compact disc - the disc stores numbers representing specific voltage levels sampled at specific times Can be used to digitize sound, video, graphics, etc. Our computers work with digital technology, hence the term digital computers Analog vs. Digital Signals Our computers work with digital technology, hence the term digital computers. Why is digital preferred to analog? Better performance, since the signal doesnt need to be continuously sampled but only at a specific intervals. Hence, digital systems are less sensitive to noise. Clearer signals. With digital systems we can use repeaters to amplify the signal again and avoid the effect of attenuation. Storage of Programs and Data Sampling is only one way to digitize information Since our computers work ONLY with numbers, everything (text, images, sound, video, etc.) must be converted into numbers...
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02_Hardware_Software - LECTURE 2: HARDWARE AND SOFTWARE CSI...

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