CHAPTER 9MODELS OF CHEMICAL BONDING 9.1 a) Larger ionization energy decreases metallic character. b) Larger atomic radius increases metallic character. c) Larger number of outer electrons decreases metallic character. d) Larger effective nuclear charge decreases metallic character. 9.2 A has covalentbonding, B has ionic bonding and C has metallicbonding. 9.3 The tendency of main-group elements to form cations decreases from Group 1A(1) to 4A(14), and the tendency to form anions increases from Group 4A(14) to 7A(17). 1A(1) and 2A(2) elements form mono- and divalent cations, respectively, while 6A(16) and 7A(17) elements form di- and monovalent anions, respectively. 9.4 Metallic behavior increases to the left and down on the periodic table. a) Cs is more metallic since it is further down the alkali metal group than Na. b) Rbis more metallic since it is both to the left and down from Mg. c) Asis more metallic since it is further down Group 5A than N. 9.5 a) O b) Be c) Se9.6 Ionic bonding occurs between metals and nonmetals, covalent bonding between nonmetals, and metallic bonds between metals. a) Bond in CsF is ionicbecause Cs is a metal and F is a nonmetal. b) Bonding in N2is covalentbecause N is a nonmetal. c) Bonding in Na(s) is metallicbecause this is a monatomic, metal solid. 9.7 a) covalentb) covalentc) ionic9.8 Ionic bonding occurs between metals and nonmetals, covalent bonding between nonmetals, and metallic bonds between metals. a) Bonding in O3would be covalentsince O is a nonmetal. b) Bonding in MgCl2would be ionicsince Mg is a metal and Cl is a nonmetal. c) Bonding in BrO2would be covalentsince both Br and O are nonmetals. 9.9 a) metallicb) covalentc) ionic 9.10 Lewis electron-dot symbols show valence electrons as dots. Place one dot at a time on the four sides (this method explains the structure in b) and then pair up dots until all valence electrons are used. The group number of the main group elements (Groups 1A-8A) gives the number of valence electrons. Rb is Group 1A, Si is Group 4A, I is Group 7A. RbSiIa)b)c)9.11 a)b)c)KrBaBr9-1
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