solutions to chapter 9

solutions to chapter 9 - CHAPTER 9 MODELS OF CHEMICAL...

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CHAPTER 9 MODELS OF CHEMICAL BONDING 9.1 a) Larger ionization energy decreases metallic character. b) Larger atomic radius increases metallic character. c) Larger number of outer electrons decreases metallic character. d) Larger effective nuclear charge decreases metallic character. 9.2 A has covalent bonding, B has ionic bonding and C has metallic bonding. 9.3 The tendency of main-group elements to form cations decreases from Group 1A(1) to 4A(14), and the tendency to form anions increases from Group 4A(14) to 7A(17). 1A(1) and 2A(2) elements form mono- and divalent cations, respectively, while 6A(16) and 7A(17) elements form di- and monovalent anions, respectively. 9.4 Metallic behavior increases to the left and down on the periodic table. a) Cs is more metallic since it is further down the alkali metal group than Na. b) Rb is more metallic since it is both to the left and down from Mg. c) As is more metallic since it is further down Group 5A than N. 9.5 a) O b) Be c) Se 9.6 Ionic bonding occurs between metals and nonmetals, covalent bonding between nonmetals, and metallic bonds between metals. a) Bond in CsF is ionic because Cs is a metal and F is a nonmetal. b) Bonding in N 2 is covalent because N is a nonmetal. c) Bonding in Na( s ) is metallic because this is a monatomic, metal solid. 9.7 a) covalent b) covalent c) ionic 9.8 Ionic bonding occurs between metals and nonmetals, covalent bonding between nonmetals, and metallic bonds between metals. a) Bonding in O 3 would be covalent since O is a nonmetal. b) Bonding in MgCl 2 would be ionic since Mg is a metal and Cl is a nonmetal. c) Bonding in BrO 2 would be covalent since both Br and O are nonmetals. 9.9 a) metallic b) covalent c) ionic 9.10 Lewis electron-dot symbols show valence electrons as dots. Place one dot at a time on the four sides (this method explains the structure in b) and then pair up dots until all valence electrons are used. The group number of the main group elements (Groups 1 A- 8 A) gives the number of valence electrons. Rb is Group 1 A, Si is Group 4 A, I is Group 7 A. Rb Si I a) b) c) 9.11 a) b) c) Kr Ba Br 9-1
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