1 - Intro Biomech

1 - Intro Biomech - FOUNDATIONS OF OCCUPATION: OCCUPATION:...

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Unformatted text preview: FOUNDATIONS OF OCCUPATION: OCCUPATION: KINESIOLOGY OT 440 Summer 2010 Course Introductions and Overview Kinesiology as a Foundation for Occupational Therapy Concepts Relating to Human Movement Overview Overview Introduction to Biomechanics: – – – – – – Planes and Axes Body Motions Joint Classification and Structure Center of Gravity Base of Support Observing and Analyzing Human Motion in Function Membership in the Join Your Professional Join Your Professional Organizations: AOTA & OTAC American Occupational Therapy Association (AOTA) is mandatory for all students in the Division of OS & OT Membership in the Occupational Therapy Association of California (OTAC) is strongly recommended New Student AOTA New Student AOTA Membership Lunch with Dr. Florence Clark Kinesiology as a Foundation for Kinesiology as a Foundation for Occupational Therapy Occupation Occupation …purposeful, meaningful activity …the specific chunks of activity Within the ongoing stream of human behavior which are named in the lexicon of the culture “The broad term that occupational therapists and occupational therapy assistants use to capture the breadth and meaning of ‘everyday life activity’ ” (Occupational Therapy Practice Framework: Domain and Process. AJOT, p. .610). Occupation : Defined Occupation “Activities… of everyday life, named, organized, Activities… and given value and meaning by individuals and a culture. Occupation is everything people do to occupy themselves, including looking after themselves… enjoying life…and contributing to the social and economic fabric of their communities…” communities…” (Law, Polatajko, Baptiste, & Townsend, 1997, p.32). Activity vs. Occupation: (Occupational Therapy Practice Framework) General class of General actions that are goal directed directed Activity may achieve Activity a goal but is not of central importance towards meaning. towards May not provide a May sense of satisfaction or fulfillment Activities with certain Activities qualities qualities Have unique meaning Have and purpose in a person’s life person’s Central to health, Central sense of identity and competence competence Influence use of time Influence and decision-making and Occupational Therapy Practice Framework: Domain and Process Domain Describes occupational therapy’s Describes domain... domain... – Areas of concern to/addressed by Areas occupational therapy practitioners. occupational Identifies steps in the occupational Identifies therapy process and the actions process involved in each step. involved OTPF: Domain of Occupational Therapy OTPF: Performance in AREAS OF OCCUPATION: – Activities of Daily Living (ADL), Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL), Education, Work, Play, Leisure, Social Participation Performance Skills (Motor, Process, Communication/Interaction) Performance Patterns (Habits, Routines, Roles) Context Activity Demands (Objects, Space, Actions, etc.) Client Factors (Body Functions and Structure) OTPF: Process of Occupational OTPF: Therapy Evaluation Intervention – Occupational Profile – Analysis of Occupational Performance – Intervention Plan – Intervention Implementation (therapeutic use of self, therapeutic use of occupations or activities, consultation, education) – Intervention Review Outcomes: Engagement in Occupation to Support Participation So…How Does Kinesiology Fit? Kinesiology Provides One Lens or Frame of Reference Through Which to Analyze Occupational Problems and Solutions… Beliefs and Definitions Beliefs Philosophy Theory Model Frame of Reference Biomechanical Frame of Reference Biomechanical Emphasis: Emphasis: – – – Range of Motion Strength Endurance Applications Limitations Integrations Kinesiology - defined as the scientific study of Kinesiology motion and the active and passive forces involved motion Three Components Three – Neuromuscular Neuromuscular Physiology Physiology – Musculoskeletal Musculoskeletal Anatomy Anatomy – Biomechanics / Biomechanics Physics Physics Meaning is What Makes Movement Occur! Meaning Cognitive States Motor Planning Emotional/ Psychological States Kinesiology Is NOT an exact science!...nor a comprehensive lens for analyzing occupation comprehensive There is more than one way to think through a There problem problem ***Memorization of muscles and function is NOT ***Memorization enough *** enough A solution often “depends” on the circumstances Occupational therapists apply basics to analyze Occupational activities in the context of occupations occupations Kinesiology in Occupational Therapy Kinesiology Understand the different forces that act on the Understand body, providing an ability to manipulate or control these forces for therapeutic reasons control Improve occupational performance in various Improve ways… ways… – analyze how specific activities are physically analyze accomplished accomplished – analyze an individual’s movement in occupation – adapt activities in a way that people are more adapt successful in their performance successful Concepts Relating to Concepts Relating to Human Movement Anatomical Position, Planes and Axes Body Motions Body Joint Structure/Classification Planes of Movement Planes Saggital Plane - divides Saggital the body into right and left the Frontal Plane - divides the Frontal body into front and back body Horizontal or Transverse Horizontal Plane - divides the body into upper and lower sections sections Axes of Movement Axes Movement can also be described as moving around an axis. The pivot point is the point around which movement occurs. Axis relate to planes ­ mathematical terms of x, y, z – X axis = transverse/mediolateral – Y axis = vertical/superoinferior – Z axis = sagittal/anteroposterior Review of Terminology: Body Motions Body Flexion / Extension Abduction / Adduction Internal / External Internal Rotation Rotation Ulnar / Radial Deviation Hyperextension Lateral Flexion to Left / Lateral Right Right Horizontal Abduction / Horizontal Adduction Adduction Pronation / Supination Fundamental Movement Patterns: Fundamental Movement Patterns: Combining Planes & Axes Sagittal plane around the x­axis Horizontal plane around the y­axis Frontal plane around the z­axis Flexion/extension, hyperextension Supination, pronation, internal & external rotation aBduction, aDduction, lateral flexion, reduction of lateral flexion, hyperaBduction, hyperaDduction Implications for Activity Analysis Implications Identify the name of the movement Identify the planes and axes Identify body position when analyzing movement Always think of a movement in its context Always Joint Classifications Joint Classifications (Lavangie & Norkin, 2001) Joint Structure Joint (Arthroses or Articulations) 2 broad categories based on the type of material broad and the methods used to unite the bony components components Synarthroses - Non-synovial joints – Connective tissue directly unites one bone to another – Fibrous or cartilaginous Diarthroses - Synovial joints – hyaline cartilage hyaline – joint capsule and cavity, synovial membrane and fluid – uniaxial, biaxial, triaxial Synarthrodial Joints (Non-Synovial): 1. Fibrous Joints – – – Dense fibrous connective tissue directly unites bone to bone e.g. Suture joint ofskull, interosseus membrane of tibia/fibula 2. Cartilaginous Joints – – Fibrocartilage or hyaline growth cartilage is the connective tissue that unites the bony components Fibrocartilage ­ pubic symphysis Hyaline Cartilage ­ first sternocostal joint – – Amphiarthroses (Cartilaginous) Amphiarthroses Junction formed by fibrocartilage and/or hyaline cartilage Allow relatively restrained movements Transmit and disperse forces between bones Examples: – Interbody joint of the spine – Pubic symphosis – Manubriosternum Diarthrodial Joints (Synovial) Diarthrodial The ends of the bony components are free to move in relation to one another. All have the following: – joint capsule – joint cavity – synovial membrane – synovial fluid – hyaline cartilage Accessory Structures: disks, plates or menisci, labrums, fat pads, ligaments, tendons Diarthrodial Joints: Uniaxial Diarthrodial Joints: Uniaxial One Degree of Freedom Hinge joint: One surface is concave, the other convex – e.g. proximal interphalangeal joint of finger (PIP) Pivot joint: One component shaped like a ring, other rotates within the ring – e.g. atlantoaxial joint (first two cervical vertebrae) Hinge Joint Hinge Joint Pivot Joint Diarthrodial Joints: Biaxial Diarthrodial Joints: Biaxial Two Degrees of Freedom Condyloid ­ (ovoid joints) have oval or egg­shaped surface that fits into a reciprocally shaped concave surface Saddle joint ­ (sellar joints) both surfaces are convex in one plane and concave in the other, fitting together like rider on a saddle Saddle Joint Saddle Joint Condyloid Joint Diarthrodial Joints: Triaxial or Multiaxial Diarthrodial Joints: Triaxial or Multiaxial Multiple Degrees of Freedom Ball and socket joint ­ spherical head of one bone fits into the cup or saucer­like cavity of the other bone Plane joint ­ joint surfaces are irregularly shaped and are usually flat or slightly curved Ball and Socket Joint Plane Joint Plane Joint Introduction to Introduction to Biomechanics Biomechanics… Biomechanics… Forces that Influence Movement Gravity - the attraction of the earth for Gravity objects within its sphere of influence (pull of the earth) (pull Center of Gravity - that part of the Center body about which all the parts exactly balance one another balance Center of Gravity in People Center of Gravity in People Generally lies a little anterior of S2 vertebra Exact location varies COG changes over time Center of Gravity of Body Center of Gravity of Body Segments Each segment is acted upon by the force of gravity and therefore has its own COG COG = approximately 4/9ths or 45% of the length of the segment measured from the proximal end As soon as one moves out of anatomical position, COG changes Factors Affecting Stability Factors Affecting Stability Height of the COG above the base of support Size of the base of support – …and support surfaces Location of the gravity line within the base of support Weight of the body ...
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This note was uploaded on 09/02/2010 for the course OT 440 taught by Professor Rafeedie during the Fall '10 term at USC.

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