9 LMN, Polio

9 LMN, Polio - Lecture9:IntroductiontoMotorControl...

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Lecture 9: Introduction to Motor Control Lower Motor Neurons
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1. Typical movement 2. Muscle disorder contributions to motor  impairment 3. Spinal cord review 4. Motor neurons  Lower motor neurons 1. Clinical correlations   a. Duchenne’s Muscular Dystrophy   b. Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis   c. Polio & Post-polio Syndrome
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Movement is meaningful and motivated Movement is best understood by looking at the  interaction of the person, task and environment Movement is guided by both internal and  external environments All nervous system components influence  movement
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Reflex/reaction: occur as a reaction to  something Volitional: with intention
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Trunk control: control/stabilize trunk so limbs can move  freely Postural response: trunk muscles activate for stability Equilibrium reactions: trunk activation in response to an  external force that pushes you off your COG  Skilled extremity control: the ability to generate specific  patterns of extremity movement required for efficient  performance of a given task or type of tasks Weight-bearing movements Non-weight bearing movements Task-specific movements
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Decision Motor planning areas Control circuits Descending motor pathways Spinal interneurons LMNs Skeletal muscle
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Muscle strength Muscle bulk Muscle contraction Muscle tone Muscle stiffness Reflexes
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Decreased ability to generate muscle force  Paresis: partial loss of voluntary muscle  contraction Paralysis: complete loss of voluntary muscle  contraction Referred to by distribution i.e., hemiplegia ,  paraplegia,  quadriplegia/tetraplegia
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Atrophy – loss of muscle bulk,  wasting Disuse atrophy: Neurogenic atrophy:
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Includes:  Muscle spasms: sudden, involuntary contractions of  the muscles Cramps: severe and painful spasms Fasciculations: twitches of the muscle fibers of a  single motor unit visible on the surface of the skin Myoclonus: brief contractions of a muscle or group 
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9 LMN, Polio - Lecture9:IntroductiontoMotorControl...

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