Lec 12- Basal Gang & Cerebellum - lecture

Lec 12- Basal Gang & Cerebellum - lecture - Higher...

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Unformatted text preview: Higher Centers of Motor Control: Basal Ganglia & Cerebellum 1. Basal Ganglia a. Anatomy b. Circuits c. Clinical Correlates i. Dyskinesia ii. Parkinsons Disease iii. Huntingtons Disorder iv. Athetoid Cerebral Palsy 2. Cerebellum a. Anatomy & Divisions b. Pathways c. Clinical Correlates i. Cerebellar Disorders (ie: Ataxic CP, Limb ataxia) Higher order cognitive aspects of motor behavior  Link between the idea of movement and the motor expression of that idea  Control of movement from initiation to completion  Regulation of muscle contraction, muscle force, and sequencing of movement BG does not directly influence the spinal cord but holds important position in motor control loops Influence is exerted via: 1. Cerebral cortex 1. PPN (pedunculopontine nucleus) Thalamus Motor cortex Corticospinal tract LMNs Voluntary muscles PPN Reticulospinal & vestibulospinal tracts LMNs Postural & girdle muscles BG Basal ganglia includes the following nuclei: Caudate nucleus Putamen Globus pallidus Subthalamic nucleus Substantia nigra Coronal view Some nuclei receive information and some send out information; many internal circuits between nuclei Some nuclei receive info & some send out info: Input (to BG) From all areas of the cerebral cortex Thalamus Output to : Thalamus which projects to motor cortex Influences descending tracts (i.e., corticospinal tract) PPN Influences descending tracts (i.e.: reticulospinal & vestibulospinal) Prefrontal association cortex: memory  Orbitofrontal circuit: behavior Complex Circuitry Glutamate: GABA: Dopamine: Two pathways:  Direct: facilitates cortex striatum GP/SN thalamus  Indirect: inhibits cortex striatum GP STN GP/SN thalamus  Circuits must counterbalance one another Dyskinesia: motor disorder involving some loss of voluntary control and regulation of movement Hyperkinesia: Hypokinesia:...
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Lec 12- Basal Gang & Cerebellum - lecture - Higher...

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