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Lec 12- Basal Gang & Cerebellum - lecture

Lec 12- Basal Gang & Cerebellum - lecture - :Basal...

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Higher Centers of Motor Control: Basal  Ganglia & Cerebellum
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1. Basal Ganglia a. Anatomy b. Circuits c. Clinical Correlates i. Dyskinesia ii. Parkinson’s Disease iii. Huntington’s Disorder iv. Athetoid Cerebral Palsy 2. Cerebellum a. Anatomy & Divisions b. Pathways c. Clinical Correlates i. Cerebellar Disorders (ie: Ataxic CP, Limb ataxia)
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Higher order cognitive aspects of motor  behavior Link between the  idea  of movement and the  motor expression  of that idea Control of movement from initiation to  completion  Regulation of muscle contraction, muscle  force, and sequencing of movement
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BG does not directly influence the spinal cord  but holds important position in motor control  loops Influence is exerted via: 1. Cerebral cortex 1. PPN (pedunculopontine nucleus) Thalamus Motor cortex Corticospinal tract LMNs Voluntary muscles PPN Reticulospinal & vestibulospinal tracts LMNs Postural & girdle muscles BG
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Basal ganglia includes the following  nuclei: Caudate nucleus Putamen Globus pallidus Subthalamic nucleus Substantia nigra
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Coronal view
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Some nuclei receive information and some  send out information; many internal circuits  between nuclei
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Some nuclei receive info & some  send out info: Input (to BG) From all areas of the cerebral cortex Thalamus Output to : Thalamus which projects to motor  cortex  Influences descending tracts (i.e.,  corticospinal tract) PPN Influences descending tracts (i.e.:  reticulospinal & vestibulospinal)  
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Prefrontal association cortex: memory Orbitofrontal circuit: behavior
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Complex Circuitry Glutamate: GABA: Dopamine:
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Two pathways: Direct: facilitates cortex         striatum       GP/SN       thalamus Indirect: inhibits  cortex       striatum       GP      STN       GP/SN      thalamus Circuits must counterbalance one another  
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Dyskinesia: motor disorder  involving some loss of voluntary  control and regulation of  movement Hyperkinesia: Hypokinesia:
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Chorea: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xW6LciTLoEA
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