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3-11 - OT261 Spring 2010 The Endocrine System General...

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OT261 Spring 2010 The Endocrine System General topics to cover… How hormones work Examples of endocrine glands and hormones Diabetes as an example of pathology of the endocrine system
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4 Hormones Hormones – chemical substances secreted by cells into the extracellular fluids REGULATE metabolic function of other cells Tend to have PROLONGED EFFECTS Are classified as AMINO ACID-BASED (amines, thyroxine, peptide, and protein hormones), or STEROIDS (gonadal and adrenocortical hormones) Eicosanoids – biologically active lipids with local hormone–like activity (leukotrienes and prostaglandins)
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Prostaglandins and Leukotrienes
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6 What distinguishes target from non-target cells?
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7 Hormone Action Hormones alter target cell activity by one of two mechanisms Second messengers: Via regulatory G proteins Amino acid–based Direct gene activation: Steroid hormones
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8 Effects of Hormone Action Hormones produce one or more of the following cellular changes in target cells Alter plasma membrane permeability Stimulate protein synthesis Activate or deactivate enzyme systems Induce secretory activity Stimulate mitosis
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Amino Acid-Based Hormones
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Hormone binds to receptor
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G-protein is activated (GTP displaces GDP)
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Active G-protein activates adynelate cyclase and cAMP is produced… leading to response cascade
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13 Hormones can initiate OR inhibit cellular responses Figure 16.2a
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Once inside cell, steroid hormones bind to nuclear membrane receptors (form hormone-receptor complex)
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Activated hormone-receptor complex binds to specific DNA sequence, activating genes to produce proteins
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16 Figure 16. .3 Steroid Hormones (summary)
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17 The gonadal hormones testosterone (an androgen), and estradiol (an estrogen) are all derived from cholesterol
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This note was uploaded on 09/02/2010 for the course OT 261 taught by Professor Howell during the Spring '07 term at USC.

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3-11 - OT261 Spring 2010 The Endocrine System General...

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