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031610 1510 Mol-Mem-Met Review Session

031610 1510 Mol-Mem-Met Review Session - BIOL 1501...

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BIOL 1501 Molecules, Membranes, Metabolism Review Session
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The cell is the fundamental unit of life Composed of biomolecules Bound within membrane compartment(s) Performs energy metabolism
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Molecules Classes of Biomolecules Link btw Biological Roles & Chemical Properties
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Classes of Biomolecules Macromolecules (polymers) Carbohydrates Monomer – monosaccharides Linkage – Glycosidic bond Nucleic Acids Monomer – nucleotides Nitrogenous base 5 carbon sugar (ribose or deoxyribose) 1-3 phosphates Linkage – Phosphodiester bond Proteins Monomer – amino acid Linkage – Peptide bond Lipids
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Polymers Carbohydrates, Nucleic Acids, and Proteins form polymers by dehydration: A-H + HO-B A-B + H2O Polymers are broken via hydrolysis A-B +H2O A-H + HO-B Carbohydrates: glycoside bond Nucleic Acids: phosphodiester bond Proteins: peptide bond
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Carbohydrates Mono (C(H2O)) Aldo- vs keto- : location of carbonyl 3 carbons in chain Linear vs ring Polymerization (glycosidic linkage) One sugar may have multiple locations for dehydration branching Storage, structure
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Nucleic Acids Mono (nucleic base + sugar + phosphate(s)) Sugar: DNA = deoxyribose, RNA = ribose ATP/ADP/AMP, etc Energy and building block Bases (others exist) Pyrimidine (T/U, C) Purine (A,G) Polymerization (phosphodiester linkage) Always 5’ – 3’ Molecules of Heredity
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Proteins Mono (N-C-C backbone + R group) R groups H-phobic H-philic Polar – Acid Base Cytosolic, membrane, secretory Polymerization (peptide linkage) Always N C The majority of gene products are proteins (proteins perform many functions)
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Lipids Hydrophobic Fatty acids -> hydrocarbon chains Saturated vs unsaturated, length, branching Fats (glycerol + 3 fatty acids) storage Phospholipids (hydrophilic head group, phosphate, glycerol, 2 fatty acids Membrane structure Steroids (4 fused rings) Signalling Membrane organization (fluidity, lipid rafts, etc) (also others)
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Membranes Evolutionary Context 3 domains compare/contrast Origin of eukaryotic endomembrane system Endomembrane System Fluid Mosaic Model Membrane Proteins
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3 Domains and Membranes All cells have a plasma membrane Separates in/out; selectively permeable Prokaryotes P-lipid structure Fatty acid chains w/ ester linkage to D-glycerol Opposing p-lipids often linked Some have double (inner/outer) plasma membranes Archea P-lipid structure Isoprenoid chains w/ ether linkage to L-glycerol Opposing p-lipids never linked Some have double (inner.outer) plasma membranes Eukaryota P-lipid structure Plasma membrane and endomembrane system w/ prokaryote type p-lipid Mitochondrial / chloroplast membranes w/ archeal type p-lipid This is IN GENERAL; there are many different lipids of many types that make up every type of membrane.
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