Unformatted text preview: ern microprocessors employ complex hardware that attempts to maximize program performance. One result is that their actual operation is far different from the view that is perceived by looking at assembly-language programs. At the assembly-code level, it appears as if instructions are executed one at a time, where each 5.7. UNDERSTANDING MODERN PROCESSORS 221 Instruction Control Instruction Control
Register File Fetch Control Instruction Decode Address Instructions Instruction Cache Operations Register Updates Prediction OK? Integer/ Branch General Integer FP Add FP Mult/Div Load Store Functional Units Operation Results Addr. Addr. Data Data Data Cache Execution Execution
Figure 5.11: Block Diagram of a Modern Processor. The Instruction Control Unit is responsible for reading instructions from memory and generating a sequence of primitive operations. The Execution Unit then performs the operations and indicates whether the branches were correctly predicted. instruction involves fetching values from registers...
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