Unformatted text preview: MORY HIERARCHY In one of the happier coincidences of computing, these fundamental properties of hardware and software complement each other beautifully. Their complementary nature suggests an approach for organizing memory systems, known as the memory hierarchy, that is used in all modern computer systems. Figure 6.21 shows a typical memory hierarchy. In general, the storage devices get faster, cheaper, and larger as we move Smaller, faster, and costlier (per byte) storage devices L0: registers L1: L2: on-chip L1 cache (SRAM) off-chip L2 cache (SRAM) main memory (DRAM) CPU registers hold words retrieved from cache memory. L1 cache holds cache lines retrieved from the L2 cache. L2 cache holds cache lines retrieved from memory. L3:
Larger, slower, and cheaper (per byte) storage devices Main memory holds disk blocks retrieved from local disks. L4: local secondary storage (local disks)
Local disks hold files retrieved from disks on remote network servers. L5: remote secondary storage (distributed file systems, Web servers) Figure 6.21: Th...
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