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Unformatted text preview: rtized by subsequent references to other objects within that block. Caches are used everywhere in modern systems. As you can see from Figure 6.23, caches are used in CPU chips, operating systems, distributed ﬁle systems, and on the World-Wide Web. They are built from and managed by various combinations of hardware and software. Note that there are a number of terms and 304 CHAPTER 6. THE MEMORY HIERARCHY acronyms in Figure 6.23 that we haven’t covered yet. We include them here to demonstrate how common caches are.
Type CPU registers TLB L1 cache L2 cache Virtual memory Buffer cache Network buffer cache Browser cache Web cache What cached 4-byte word Address translations 32-byte block 32-byte block 4-KB page Parts of ﬁles Parts of ﬁles Web pages Web pages Where cached On-chip CPU registers On-chip TLB On-chip L1 cache Off-chip L2 cache Main memory Main memory Local disk Local disk Remote server disks Latency (cycles) 0 0 1 10 100 100 10,000,000 10,000,000 1,000,000,000 Managed by...
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