An adapter is a card that plugs into a slot on the

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Unformatted text preview: storage of data and programs. Initially, the executable hello program resides on the disk. Each I/O device is connected to the I/O bus by either a controller or an adapter. The distinction between the two is mainly one of packaging. Controllers are chip sets in the device itself or on the system’s main printed circuit board (often called the motherboard). An adapter is a card that plugs into a slot on the motherboard. Regardless, the purpose of each is to transfer information back and forth between the I/O bus and an I/O device. Chapter 6 has more to say about how I/O devices such as disks work. And in Chapter 12, you will learn how to use the Unix I/O interface to access devices from your application programs. We focus on the especially 1.4. PROCESSORS READ AND INTERPRET INSTRUCTIONS STORED IN MEMORY 7 interesting class of devices known as networks, but the techniques generalize to other kinds of devices as well. Main memory The main memory is a temporary storage device that holds both a program and the data it manipulates while the processor is...
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