At the coding level many low level optimizations tend

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Unformatted text preview: ion between different data types. The program is expressed as a sequence of instructions, each of which performs a single operation. Parts of the program state, such as registers and the runtime stack, are directly visible to the programmer. Only low-level operations are provided to support data manipulation and program control. The compiler must use multiple instructions to generate and operate on different data structures and to implement control constructs such as conditionals, loops, and procedures. We have covered many different aspects of C and how it gets compiled. We have seen the that the lack of bounds checking in C makes many programs prone to buffer overflows, and that this has made many system vulnerable to attacks. We have only examined the mapping of C onto IA32, but much of what we have covered is handled in a similar way for other combinations of language and machine. For example, compiling C++ is very similar to compiling C. In fact, early implementations of C++ simply performed a source-to-source conversion from 3.16. SUMMAR...
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