Closing a closed descriptor is an error but

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Unformatted text preview: dresses is mapped to a set of identifiers called Internet domain names. A process on one host communicates with a process on another host over a connection. The next three sections discuss these fundamental ideas in more detail. 12.3.1 IP Addresses An IP address is an unsigned 32-bit integer. Network programs store IP addresses in the IP address structure shown in Figure 12.9. netinet/in.h /* Internet address structure */ struct in_addr { unsigned int s_addr; /* network byte order (big-endian) */ }; netinet/in.h Figure 12.9: IP address structure. Aside: Why store the scalar IP address in a structure? Storing a scalar address in a structure is an unfortunate historical artifact from the early Berkeley 4.xBSD implementations of the sockets interface. It would make more sense to define a scalar type for IP addresses, but it is too late to change now because of the enormous installed base of applications. End Aside. Because Internet hosts can have different host byte orders, TCP/IP defines a...
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