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Unformatted text preview: sks, keyboards, displays, and even networks, is modeled as a ﬁle. All input and output in the system is performed by reading and writing ﬁles, using a set of operating system functions known as system calls. This simple and elegant notion of a ﬁle is nonetheless very powerful because it provides applications with a uniform view of all of the varied I/O devices that might be contained in the system. For example, application programmers who manipulate the contents of a disk ﬁle are blissfully unaware of the speciﬁc disk technology. Further, the same program will run on different systems that use different disk technologies. 16 CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION
Aside: The Linux project. In August, 1991, a Finnish graduate student named Linus Torvalds made a modest posting announcing a new Unix-like operating system kernel:
From: [email protected] (Linus Benedict Torvalds) Newsgroups: comp.os.minix Subject: What would you like to see most in minix? Summary: small poll for my new operating system Date: 25 Aug 91 20:57:08 GMT Hello everybody out there using minix I’m doing...
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