Instead it is a mountain of temporal and spatial

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Unformatted text preview: ditional LRU state bits per line, and additional control logic. Higher associativity can increase hit time, because of the increased complexity, and can also increase the miss penalty because of the increased complexity of choosing a victim line. The choice of associativity ultimately boils down to a trade-off between the hit time and the miss penalty. Traditionally, high-performance systems that pushed the clock rates would opt for direct-mapped L1 caches (where the miss penalty is only a few cycles) and a small degree of associativity (say 2 to 4) for the lower levels. But there are no hard and fast rules. In Intel Pentium systems, the L1 and L2 caches are all four-way set associative. In Alpha 21164 systems, the L1 instruction and data caches are direct-mapped, the L2 cache is three-way set associative, and the L3 cache is direct-mapped. Impact of Write Strategy Write-through caches are simpler to implement and can use a write buffer that works independently of the cache to update memory. Furthermore, read misses are less expensive because they do not trigger a memory write. On the other hand, write-back ca...
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