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Unformatted text preview: ce functions and Unix file I/O functions. (We will describe Unix file I/O in Section 12.4 and the sockets interface in Section 12.5.) The sockets functions are typically implemented as system calls that trap into the kernel and call various kernel-mode functions in TCP/IP. Aside: Berkeley sockets. The sockets interface was developed by researchers at University of California at Berkeley in the early 1980s. For this reason, it is still often referred to as Berkeley sockets. The Berkeley researchers developed the sockets interface to work with any underlying protocol. The first implementation was for TCP/IP, which they included in the Unix 4.2BSD kernel and distributed to numerous universities and labs. This was one of the most important events in the history of the Internet. Almost overnight, thousands of people had access to TCP/IP and its source codes. It generated tremendous excitement and sparked a flurry of new research in networking and internetworking. End Aside. TCP/IP is actually of family of protocols, each of which contributes different capabilities. For example, the...
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