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Unformatted text preview: organized by geographical proximity. At the lowest level is a LAN (Local Area Network) that spans a building or a campus. The most popular LAN technology by far is ethernet, which was developed in the mid-1970’s at Xerox PARC. Ethernet has proven to be remarkably resilient, evolving from 3 Mb/s transfer rates, to 10 Mb/s, to 100 Mb/s, and more recently to 1 Gb/s. An ethernet segment consists of some wires (usually twisted pairs of wires) and a small box called a hub, as shown in Figure 12.3. Ethernet segments typically span small areas, such as a room or a floor in a building. Each wire has the same maximum bit bandwidth, typically 100 Mb/s or 1 Gb/s. One end is attached to an 12.2. NETWORKS 607 CPU chip register file ALU system bus memory bus main memory Expansion slots I/O bus USB controller mouse keyboard graphics adapter monitor disk network disk controller network adapter MI I/O bridge Figure 12.2: Hardware organization of a network host. host 100 Mb/s host hub host 100 Mb/s Figure 12.3: Ethernet segment. 608 CHAPTER 12. NETWORK PROGRAMMING adapter on a host, an...
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