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Unformatted text preview: ndards are not available online. They must be ordered for a fee from IEEE (standards.ieee.org). Part I Program Structure and Execution 19 Chapter 2 Representing and Manipulating Information
Modern computers store and process information represented as two-valued signals. These lowly binary digits, or bits, form the basis of the digital revolution. The familiar decimal, or base-10, representation has been in use for over 1000 years, having been developed in India, improved by Arab mathematicians in the 12th century, and brought to the West in the 13th century by the Italian mathematician Leonardo Pisano, better known as Fibonacci. Using decimal notation is natural for ten-ﬁngered humans, but binary values work better when building machines that store and process information. Two-valued signals can readily be represented, stored, and transmitted, for example, as the presence or absence of a hole in a punched card, as a high or low voltage on a wire, or as a magnetic domain oriented clo...
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