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2300_les01 - Overview Thermodynamics is the study of energy...

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1 Lesson 1, Geof Silcox, Chemical Engineering, University of Utah Overview Thermodynamics is the study of energy and its transformations. The 1st law of thermodynamics says that energy cannot be created or destroyed. In other words, energy is conserved. The 2nd law of thermodynamics says that even though energy is conserved, you can’t have your energy just any way you like it. I. Concepts and Definitions (Ch.1) II. Transfer of Energy by Heat and Work. Conservation of Mass and Energy for Closed Systems (Ch. 2, 4) III. Properties of Pure Substances (Ch. 3) IV. Conservation of Energy for Closed Systems (Ch. 4) IV. Conservation of Mass and Energy for Open Systems (Control Volumes) (Ch. 5) V. The Second Law (Ch. 6) VI. Entropy and the Entropy Balance (Ch. 7) VII. Power and Refrigeration Cycles (introduction to Ch. 9, 10, 11) Lesson 1, Geof Silcox, Chemical Engineering, University of Utah Concepts and Definitions •Properties (intensive, extensive) •System (boundary, open, closed) •Surroundings Models of Working Substances •Ideal or perfect gas •Real gas •Incompressible substance •Phase-change fluids •Mixtures Conservation Laws •Energy is conserved (First Law) •Mass is conserved •Momentum is conserved Second Law •An isolated system will tend to a state of equilibrium •Certain processes are possible, others are not Universal Balance Equation for Any Extensive Property Accumulation = transport + generation Accumulation form: Rate form: final initial amount amount amount amount amount amount entering leaving generated consumed = + rate of rate of rate of rate of rate of change transport in transport out generation consumption = + THERMODYNAMICS TOOLBOX
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June 2004 Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory http://eed.llnl.gov/flow U.S. Energy Flow Trends – 2002 Net Primary Resource Consumption ~103 Exajoules Source: Production and end-use data from Energy Information Administration, Annual Energy Review 2002.
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