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23 - Nanotechnology for Engineers Himanshu J Sant...

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Nanotechnology for Engineers Himanshu J. Sant Fundamentals of Microfabrication Nanotechnology Market
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1.00E+00 1.00E+03 1.00E+06 1.00E+09 1.00E+12 1.00E+15 1.00E+18 1.00E+21 1.00E+24 1.00E+27 -60 -50 -40 -30 -20 -10 0 10 20 30 40 Years from 2000 Atoms per Bit IC and bio-based device densities converge Molecular devices IC and Bio IC and Bio- based device based device density converge density converge Molecular Molecular Devices Devices Devices will soon be on the “molecular” or “atomistic” scale
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Outline • Introduction • History: Richard Feynman Development of the field • Uses: Current applications and methods Future applications Research areas • Conclusion Richard Feynman Introduction: Philosophy Old philosophy of creating things was to start with something big, and make it smaller. Nanoscience starts with something atomic and builds things with it. “Nanotechnology has given us the tools… to play with the ultimate toy box of nature – atoms and molecules. Everything is made from it… The possibilities to create new things appear limitless.” - Nobel Laureate Horst Stormer
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Introduction: Definition Nanoscience refers to the world as it works on the atomic or molecular scale, from one to several hundred nanometers. Nanometer = 10 -9 meters: roughly the size of 10 hydrogen atoms lined up or the width of DNA. History: Feynman On Computing “…Why can’t we make them very small, make them of little wires… the wires could be 10 or 100 atoms in diameter, and the circuits could be a few [hundred nanometers] across.” Richard Feynman on computers.
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Roots of NanoScience 1981 – SPM (Scanning Probe Microscopes) – Allowed us to image individual atoms – Small tip (a few atoms in size) is held above the conductive surface. Electrons “tunnel” (STM’s) between the probe and surface (by Quantum Mechanics). – The tip is scanned across the surface measuring the current to create the image. Roots of NanoScience C60 – Buckminster Fullerene – Bucky balls are discovered in 1985. Stable molecule entirely made of carbon. With STM’s, IBM researchers in 1990 positioned atoms on a surface. Carbon nanotubes – tubes made entirely of carbon rings. 1991
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Current State of Nanotechnology More “science” than “technology” – Based more in physics and chemistry than in engineering – Limited application of nanoscience to engineering at this early stage Relatively few commercial products Traditional engineering techniques becoming more “nano” every day Definition still vague Nanofabrication Technology Families
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Areas of Nanotechnology Nanostructured materials and nanoparticles Nanometer size grains Nanotube and nanoparticle composites • Bionanotechnology Using biology to engineer materials at the nanoscale Self assembly Use of materials that self organize • Nanotubes • Nanoelectronics • Nanolithography How about nano-motors ?
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Rotors and Switches Layers and Composites Nanocluster and Tubes Nanoporous Membranes square4 Efficient Lighting
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