23 - Nanotechnology for Engineers Himanshu J. Sant...

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Unformatted text preview: Nanotechnology for Engineers Himanshu J. Sant Fundamentals of Microfabrication Nanotechnology Market 1.00E+00 1.00E+03 1.00E+06 1.00E+09 1.00E+12 1.00E+15 1.00E+18 1.00E+21 1.00E+24 1.00E+27-60-50-40-30-20-10 10 20 30 40 Years from 2000 Atoms per Bit IC and bio-based device densities converge Molecular devices IC and Bio IC and Bio-based device based device density converge density converge Molecular Molecular Devices Devices Devices will soon be on the “molecular” or “atomistic” scale Outline • Introduction • History: – Richard Feynman – Development of the field • Uses: – Current applications and methods – Future applications • Research areas • Conclusion Richard Feynman Introduction: Philosophy • Old philosophy of creating things was to start with something big, and make it smaller. Nanoscience starts with something atomic and builds things with it. • “Nanotechnology has given us the tools… to play with the ultimate toy box of nature – atoms and molecules. Everything is made from it… The possibilities to create new things appear limitless.”- Nobel Laureate Horst Stormer Introduction: Definition • Nanoscience refers to the world as it works on the atomic or molecular scale, from one to several hundred nanometers. • Nanometer = 10-9 meters: roughly the size of 10 hydrogen atoms lined up or the width of DNA. History: Feynman On Computing • “…Why can’t we make them very small, make them of little wires… the wires could be 10 or 100 atoms in diameter, and the circuits could be a few [hundred nanometers] across.” – Richard Feynman on computers. Roots of NanoScience • 1981 – SPM (Scanning Probe Microscopes) – Allowed us to image individual atoms – Small tip (a few atoms in size) is held above the conductive surface. Electrons “tunnel” (STM’s) between the probe and surface (by Quantum Mechanics). – The tip is scanned across the surface measuring the current to create the image. Roots of NanoScience • C60 – Buckminster Fullerene – Bucky balls are discovered in 1985. Stable molecule entirely made of carbon. • With STM’s, IBM researchers in 1990 positioned atoms on a surface. • Carbon nanotubes – tubes made entirely of carbon rings. 1991 Current State of Nanotechnology • More “science” than “technology” – Based more in physics and chemistry than in engineering – Limited application of nanoscience to engineering at this early stage • Relatively few commercial products • Traditional engineering techniques becoming more “nano” every day • Definition still vague Nanofabrication Technology Families Areas of Nanotechnology • Nanostructured materials and nanoparticles – Nanometer size grains – Nanotube and nanoparticle composites • Bionanotechnology – Using biology to engineer materials at the nanoscale • Self assembly – Use of materials that self organize • Nanotubes • Nanoelectronics • Nanolithography How about nano-motors ? Rotors and Switches...
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This note was uploaded on 09/02/2010 for the course MEEN 5050 taught by Professor Himanshuj.sant during the Spring '10 term at Utah.

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23 - Nanotechnology for Engineers Himanshu J. Sant...

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