Two%20Great%20Wars%20%2811%20September%202007%29 - HISTORY...

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H ISTORY 140/141 * F ALL 2007 C AROL S YMES Tuesday, 11 September Two Great Wars: Greeks VS . Persians, Greeks VS . Greeks K EY Q UESTIONS A DDRESSED IN L ECTURE What was “the Greek experiment” (Coffin & Stacey, pp, 80-107)? Why were the Persians and the Greeks at war, and why did the Greek poleis win? Why then did Athens and Sparta fight “the greatest war in history” two generations later? What was different about people, power, and perspectives in Athens at this time? T ERMS I NTRODUCED IN L ECTURE hoplite (from hopla, a round shield), phalanx (“a solid, interwoven mass”); hoplite revolution democracy ( demos, “kin-group, neighborhood” + krátos, “ strength, might”) tyranny ( turannos, “absolute ruler”) monarchy ( monarchos = monos, “alone” [ cf. monotheism ] + arché , “first, supreme”) oligarchy ( oligos , “few” + arché ) aristocracy ( aristos, “the best” + arché ) A DDITIONAL S OURCES C ITED IN L ECTURE Epitaph on the tomb of the Athenian dead at Marathon, 490 B.C.E. Fighting as the champions of Greece, / the Athenians at Marathon laid low the might / of the gold-appareled Persians. Epitaph on the tomb of the Spartan dead at Thermopylae, 480 B.C.E. Go tell the Spartans, you who read: / We did their duty, and are dead. Epitaph on the tomb of Æschylus the tragic playwright (d. 456 B.C.E.), composed by himself
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Two%20Great%20Wars%20%2811%20September%202007%29 - HISTORY...

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